Author: vl_y7z81e

The ESCRT-0 Protein HRS Interacts with the HTLV-2 Antisense Protein APH-2 and Suppresses Viral Replication [Virus-Cell Interactions]

The divergent clinical outcomes of human T cell leukemia viruses type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1, HTLV-2) infections has been attributed to functional differences in their antisense proteins. In contrast to HTLV-1 HBZ, the role of APH-2 in HTLV-2 infection is poorly understood. In previous studies, we identified the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) 0 subunit HRS as a novel interaction partner of APH-2 but not HBZ. HRS is a master regulator of endosomal protein sorting for lysosomal degradation and is hijacked by many viruses to promote replication. However, no studies so far have shown a link between HTLVs and HRS. In this study we sought to characterize the interaction between HRS and APH-2 and investigate the impact of HRS on the lifecycle of HTLV-2. We confirmed a direct specific interaction between APH-2 and HRS and show that the CC2 domain of HRS and the N-terminal domain of APH-2 mediate their interaction. We demonstrate that HRS recruits APH-2 to early endosomes possibly furnishing an entry route into the endo/lysosomal pathway. We demonstrate that inhibition of this pathway using either Bafilomycin or HRS overexpression substantially extends the half-life of APH-2 and stabilizes Tax2B expression levels. We found that HRS enhances Tax2B mediated LTR activation, while depletion of HRS enhances HTLV-2 production and release indicating that HRS may have a negative impact on HTLV-2 replication. Overall our study provides important new insights into the role of the ESCRT-0 HRS protein and by extension the ESCRT machinery and the endo/lysosomal pathway in HTLV-2 infection.

Importance: While the antisense protein of HTLV-2 (APH-2) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in infected carriers, its role in HTLV-2 infection is poorly understood. In this study we characterized the interaction between ESCRT 0 component HRS and APH-2 and explored the role of HRS in HTLV-2 replication. HRS is a master regulator of protein sorting for lysosomal degradation, a feature that is manipulated by several viruses to promote replication. Unexpectedly we found that HRS targets APH-2 and possibly Tax2B for lysosomal degradation and has an overall negative impact on HTLV-2 replication and release. The negative impact of interactions between HTLV-2 regulatory proteins and HRS and by extension the ESCRT machinery may represent an important strategy used by HTLV-2 to limit virus production and promote persistence, features that may contribute to the limited pathogenic potential of this infection.

Reliability and Usefulness of Time-Motion and Physiological Responses in Simulated Judo Matches

Franchini, E, Dunn, E, and Takito, MY. Reliability and usefulness of time-motion and physiological responses in simulated judo matches. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—Match simulations have been used to investigate different interventions in judo. However, no study has assessed the reliability of actions performed and the physiological responses to the match and its usefulness. Thus, 2 studies were conducted to verify the reliability of time-motion and physiological responses to judo matches. In the first study, 25 judo athletes performed one 5-minute judo match simulation twice, 1 week apart, and had their heart rate and blood lactate measured. In the second, 12 judo athletes performed one 5-minute judo simulation 4 times, 72 hours apart, and had their primary actions and match temporal structure analyzed. Comparisons between conditions, reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC), typical error (TE), smallest worthwhile change (SWC), and minimal detectable change were determined. The main findings indicated that: (a) there were no differences between matches for any variable; (b) ICCs were significant (except for blood lactate before matches in both studies) with 6 variables presenting large (number of attacks plus defensive actions, number of scoring actions, efficiency, number of sutemi-waza, time per combat sequence, and time per interval phase time), and the remaining 15 variables presenting very large reliability; (c) TE was higher than SWC for all variables when small differences were considered. Moderate changes in peak blood lactate and the change in blood lactate (in both studies), and time in tachi-waza could be properly detected; however, only large changes could be detected for all other variables, suggesting that investigations using match simulation as an outcome variable may only detect large changes.
Address correspondence to Emerson Franchini,
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

Surprise! Prusa Announces MINI 3D Printer

The new Original Prusa MINI 3D printer [Source: Prusa Research]

Prusa Research has unexpectedly announced a brand new 3D printer, the Original Prusa MINI.

The Prague-based company has been extremely busy over the past year, deploying their flagship MK3S device, as well as the company’s first SLA-based 3D printer, the SL1.

The Original Prusa MINI 3D Printer

Now they’ve announced a new machine, the Original Prusa MINI. As you might expect, this machine is somewhat smaller than the standard-sized MK3S. However, though it is smaller in dimensions, it seems to have many of the features of its older sibling — and some surprises, too.

First, the basics.

Original Prusa MINI Specifications

Comparison of the maximum build volume of the Prusa MINI and Prusa MK3S [Source: Prusa Research]

Comparison of the maximum build volume of the Prusa MINI and Prusa MK3S [Source: Prusa Research]

The MINI does indeed have a smaller build volume, at only 180 x 180 x 180 mm. This is as compared to the MK3S’s 250 x 210 x 210 mm. In truth, it really isn’t that much smaller and the 180 mm dimension is likely large enough for almost all prints. Another way to look at this is to ask yourself how many times you have a print having dimensions between 180 and 210 mm? Not terribly often, I would guess.

One quite visible change from the MK3S is that the gantry is different. While the MK3S has a full U-shaped tower, the MINI does not. Instead it has a cantilevered configuration that uses far less material. It would appear that this style might have somewhat less stability, but it remains to be seen whether this is a significant factor.

Perhaps the most significant difference is that the MINI does not use a direct drive extruder. Instead it uses a Bowden extruder, where the motor is off to the side and pushes the filament through a tube to the hot end. This may result in challenges 3D printing flexible filament, although Prusa Research says flex is supported.

It goes without saying that the MINI is not capable of accepting an MMU2S (multi-material unit) upgrade, as the MK3S can. To be clear, there are some functional limitations of the MINI, but if they are an issue for you, choose the MK3S instead.

There are many identical features between the two machines, as the MINI has inherited quite a bit of technology. The same removable magnetic bed surface is used; the same hot end is used (although the MINI can hit only 280C, whereas the MK3S can hit 300C); automatic mesh bed leveling is incorporated; layer heights are the same. Because of this it’s likely the MINI is able to produce high-quality prints.

Original Prusa MINI Options

Some features are optional on the MINI. A filament-out sensor, standard on the MK3S, is a US$20 option on the MINI. Similarly, there is an optional WiFi connection upgrade, which is not even available on the MK3S.

One MK3S features that is not available on the MINI is recovery from power outages. Another is that the MINI is available only as a kit. However, the kit seems to be ridiculously simple to assemble as it contains only three components. Prusa Research says you can be up and running in less than 30 minutes.

That leads to the interesting part: there are some features on the MINI that are not available on the MK3S.

Original Prusa MINI Color Screen

One is a color screen! However, it’s not a touchscreen and is operated by a wheel. This is a definite improvement over the increasingly-ancient-appearing LCD screen found on the MK3S.

You can see the new screen and the other features in the official Prusa Research video:

Original Prusa MINI Farm Mode

There’s another very intriguing bit from Prusa Research: “Farm Mode”.

It’s not clear what this is, but Prusa Research says it’s “coming soon”. It is likely a mode in which arrays of MINIs can be operated in some type of production mode. Farm Mode is no doubt some variation of the system used by Prusa Research in their in-house production facility, so it likely is of good quality. I’ll have a lot more thoughts about this development in the near future.

Original Prusa MINI Price

Finally, the best part. The price.

While the MK3S kit sells for US$749, the MINI is priced at an amazing US$349! If the MINI proves to produce high-quality prints and be as reliable as the MK3S, it will be a huge seller at that price point.

The price point is quite competitive with many low-priced Asian machines, so Prusa Research seems to be addressing that challenge head-on.

I’m hoping to be able to test one of these units in the future.

Via Prusa Blog and Prusa Research

Bench Press at Full Range of Motion Produces Greater Neuromuscular Adaptations Than Partial Executions After Prolonged Resistance Training

Martínez-Cava, A, Hernández-Belmonte, A, Courel-Ibáñez, J, Morán-Navarro, R, González-Badillo, JJ, and Pallarés, JG. Bench press at full range of motion produces greater neuromuscular adaptations than partial executions after prolonged resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—Training at a particular range of motion (ROM) produces specific neuromuscular adaptations. However, the effects of full and partial ROM in one of the most common upper-limb exercises such as the bench press (BP) remain controversial. In this study, 50 recreationally to highly resistance trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 training groups: full bench press (BPFULL), two-thirds bench press (BP2/3), and one-third bench press (BP1/3) and control (training cessation). Experimental groups completed a 10-week velocity-based resistance training program using the same relative load (linear periodization, 60–80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), only differing in the ROM trained. Individual ROM for each BP variation was determined in the familiarization and subsequently replicated in every lift during training and testing sessions. Neuromuscular adaptations were evaluated by 1RM strength and mean propulsive velocity (MPV). The BPFULL group obtained the best results for the 3 BP variations (effect size [ES] = 0.52–1.96); in turn, partial BP produced smaller improvements as the ROM decreased (BP2/3: ES = 0.29–0.78; BP1/3: ES = −0.01 to 0.66). After 10-week of training cessation, the control group declined in all neuromuscular parameters (ES = 0.86–0.92) except in MPV against low loads. Based on these findings, the BPFULL stands as the most effective exercise to maximize neuromuscular improvements in recreational and well-trained athletes compared with partial ROM variations.
Address correspondence to Dr. Jesús G. Pallarés,
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

List of Photographic Equipment Makers

Photography has undergone a lot of change over the years. From the days when photographers used to carry film rolls and the days when photographs had to be “washed” in a chemical solution and chemically developed to create the final picture, we came to the digital age of electronic sensors that could instantly capture and process high-quality photographs.

Film rolls soon made way for SD cards and memory cards. Over recent years, photography has further evolved with technology. Smartphones now have cameras that are catching up to the level of quality that dedicated DSLR cameras deliver.

The rise of social media has placed an added emphasis on being able to share and send photos to your family and friends. Phone cameras have the benefit of connectivity. They are able to share pictures as soon as they are shot. Wi-Fi connectivity has also become an important feature in DSLR and regular cameras.

Having photographic images in a digital format also meant that the images can be manipulated and post-processed. Software programs like Adobe Photoshop, Lightroom, and GIMP have become synonymous with professional (and even amateur) photography. Equipment like tripods, gimbals, and other supporting tools has also become increasingly commonplace among today’s photography enthusiasts.

The most basic photography equipment consists of a camera, a collection of lenses, and some filters. Other important pieces of equipment that most serious photographers carry include a memory card, a flash module, and a camera case or bag.

Given the variety of photographic equipment that people use today, there are plenty of manufacturers, old and new, that make this equipment. Some manufacturers have been in the industry for a long time while some are new entrants. The following are some of the biggest makers of photographic equipment in the world:

1. Nikon

One of the oldest players in the photography industry is Nikon. It was founded more than 100 years ago, in 1917, in the Japanese capital of Tokyo. It is arguably the most well-established manufacturer of photography equipment. It makes camera bodies, lenses, and other accessories like flashes and camera cases.

The one thing that stands out about Nikon is the fact that it has evolved with the changing technology throughout its history. It also has a unique variety of products that cater to everyone from an average consumer to a highly professional photographer. People of all skill levels can find appropriate camera equipment at Nikon.

2. Canon


An equally big name as Nikon, Canon is another giant of the photography industry. This Japanese company, established in 1937, is the maker of well-known cameras and lenses. Canon is a very diversified company which manufactures printers, photocopy machines, and a whole host of industrial equipment as well.

Canon has a very wide array of products and it has also constantly brought new products to the market with changes in technology. Canon has cameras for every photographer, from casual to professional.

3. Sony


You simply cannot leave out the global giant Sony when you talk consumer electronics. While you may know Sony for its televisions or its famous walkman, Sony also makes photography equipment. Though the product range is not as extensive as Nikon’s or Canon’s, Sony still offers some of the most highly rated cameras.

Sony has a lineup of DSLRs, point-and-shoots, and mirrorless cameras. It also has its alpha series of camera lenses. Sony’s Alpha series and Cyber-shot series cameras are very well-known. Besides cameras and lenses, Sony also sells accessories like flash modules, battery packs, filters, and interesting products.

4. Pentax


The list of camera makers is dominated by Japanese companies. Pentax was founded in the year 1919 (about a century ago) and is currently owned by Ricoh imaging. Pentax used to be a big name when it came to film cameras, binoculars, and lenses.

Today, it receives high reviews for its mirrorless cameras and its DSLRs. The company also manufactures some pretty solid lenses. Pentax sells point-and-shoots, 360-degree cameras (for capturing those amazing 360 videos), and all-weather action cameras.

The action cameras are not like GoPros and look more like point-and-shoots. Pentax also makes accessories like battery packs, flash modules, and lens adapter rings.

5. Olympus


Also founded in 1919 just like Pentax, Olympus is a Tokyo-based manufacturer of optics and reprography products. Besides having a name in the medical industry, Olympus is also well-known for its cameras.

The company is a pioneer in the DSLR space. It is known to have innovated the design of the Four Thirds System standard in DSLR cameras. The company has had a history of bringing out innovations to the market. Olympus has brought cameras which are more compact than what competitors have offered.

Its Om series of cameras are particularly well-known. Besides camera bodies, Olympus also makes camera lenses and lens-related accessories.

6. Leica


Our first non-Japanese photography equipment maker on this list is Leica. This German company is identified most commonly for making compact and portable cameras. The company is quite well-established, having started operations all the way back in 1849.

Throughout the 1900s, Leica’s rangefinder cameras made the company famous. Leica makes fixed-lens and interchangeable-lens cameras. It also has an array of lenses that can be used with Leica cameras. In terms of accessories, the company makes lens adapters, camera cases, and flash modules.

7. Lumix by Panasonic

Lumix by Panasonic

Panasonic is known the world over as a consumer electronics giant. You must have heard of its brand Lumix, under which the Japanese electronics giant makes a stellar range of photography products.

Lumix is a relatively newcomer to the photography industry. The first Lumix products began to sell in the year 2001. However, in a short period of time, Lumix has managed to add point-and-shoot cameras, DSLRs, mirrorless cameras, and waterproof action cameras to its lineup.

Lumix also makes accessories like flash modules, battery packs, chargers, and optical viewfinders. Lumix completes its photography equipment lineup with a variety of lenses.

8. Fujifilm


The Japanese list of companies just does not end. Fujifilm is another Japanese company that is well known for its photography equipment. As the name suggests, when the company was established in 1934, it produced photographic films. It was best known for its iconic film rolls.

However, the technological changes made Fujifilm come up with new products. Today, it makes digital cameras, DSLRs, and mirrorless cameras. It also has a wide array of lenses in its product range. Lastly, Fujifilm also makes point-and-shoot cameras.

In terms of accessories, Fujifilm sells flash modules, battery packs, camera bags, and lens accessories.

9. Samsung


The Korean major Samsung is pretty much into everything. Whether it is heavy industries, mobile phones, TVs, or cameras, Samsung seems to be everywhere. In its camera lineup, Samsung offers its new NX-series mirrorless cameras, its touch-screen enabled Galaxy cameras (with Android OS), and its point-and-shoot Smart camera.

Samsung’s cameras are positioned towards youth and people who use social media. Its cameras often have features like Wi-Fi and Android OS. Besides cameras, Samsung also makes certain basic accessories like flash modules, battery packs, and camera cases. Samsung also makes some lens filters.

10. DJI


Moving away from camera bodies and lenses, a Chinese company called DJI deserves a mention as it is perhaps the most popular drone manufacturer in the world today. DJI was founded in the year 2006. Drones have become an important part of the photography scene and hence any list of photography equipment must also talk about drone manufacturers.

DJI has drones for all experience levels. The company makes entry-level drones which are the size of your palm or professional drones that cost thousands of dollars. DJI also makes drone accessories, remote controllers, battery packs, and charging docks.

11. Tamron


Tamron is a Japanese company that specializes in manufacturing camera lenses. It started operations in 1950 and has since manufactured lenses that work with camera bodies of various brands.

Tamron counts Sony as one of its investors. Sony has a 12.06% stake in the company. Besides making photographic lenses, Tamron also makes camcorder lenses, cell phone camera lenses, and CCTV camera lenses.

12. Sigma


Sigma is a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, lenses, and flash modules. The great thing about Sigma lenses is that they work with camera bodies of companies like Nikon, Canon, Olympus, Pentax, Sony, and Panasonic. Sigma has a lens for cameras of all those brands. Plus, Sigma lenses also work with Sigma cameras.

The company was founded in 1961. Sigma makes compact cameras, DSLRs, and mirrorless cameras as well. It also makes lens filters and lens mount converters.

13. GoPro


GoPro’s tagline is “The World’s Most Versatile Camera”. It is a company that manufactures action cameras. Their cameras are very compact in size and can be mounted on various parts of the human body or on vehicles, skateboards, kayaks, or other adventure gear.

While most of its cameras are geared towards taking action-packed video, users can also click photographs with a GoPro camera. GoPro was founded in the year 2002 and is a relatively newcomer to the photography equipment business. However, in a short span of around 15-18 years, it has grown quite spectacularly.

GoPro is now very commonly used by Vloggers, sportspersons, travelers, and even documentary makers. The camera can be carried anywhere and can be used in plenty of ways. Its versatility makes it a unique proposition.

14. Manfrotto


Manfrotto is an Italian company that is well-known for making tripods and monopods. The company was started by an Italian photojournalist. The company was eventually purchased by the UK-based Vitec Group.

Besides tripods, the company also makes light stands, clamps, brackets, lighting booms, camera bags, and photographic filters. Its products are available throughout the world and are known for their quality and design.

That concludes our list of top photography equipment manufacturers. We have covered manufacturers of all the essential photographic equipment. If you are looking to buy anything related to photography, then this list is guaranteed to get you started on the right track. Happy clicks!

The post List of Photographic Equipment Makers appeared first on 3D Insider.

10 Best Solar Powered Speakers

Are you in the market for a solar power speaker, but have no idea, which one to buy? In this buyer’s guide you’ll find the top speakers that are worth considering. The speakers are split up across 3 price categories so you can choose the one that matches your budget. This guide will save you time since there is no need to do your own research.

The buying consideration section allows you to learn about the top factors that must be considered. They include wireless connectivity, audio quality, durability, wireless connectivity, and extra features. When each of these factors is considered you’ll end up with the perfect solar power speaker.

We had a great time writing this buyer’s guide and are confident you’ll find your ideal solar power speaker. The marketplace is rich with options so read until the end. You’ll be pleasantly surprised by the quality of the speakers on this list.

Elzle Portable
Weight: 1.06 Pounds
Battery Life: 50 hours
50+ hours battery life, waterproof and shockproof.
Check Amazon
Best Value
Alpine Rock Speaker
Weight: 1.06 Pounds
Battery Life: 12 hours
Has no need for wires and it’s also waterproof.
Check Amazon
Top Pick
Ecoxgear Sol Jam
Weight: 1.5 Pounds
Battery Life: 12 hours
High efficiency solar panel and decent battery life.
Check Amazon

Buying considerations

Audio quality

The practicality of solar power speakers has its benefits, but it’s pointless if the audio quality isn’t great. Here are a few of the top audio quality factors to consider when buying:

  • Frequency response: consider the frequency response to gauge the audio depth. Look for a frequency range of around 20-20KHz, because that’s the range the human ear can hear.
  • Power: consider the watt rating since this gives you a clue of how loud the audio will be. Over 5 watts is a must and at least 20 watts is preferable. However, it depends on your requirements since a smaller value is required for ambient music and radio.
  • Audio drivers: the way drivers are manufactured determines a lot about the audio profile. Larger drivers lead to louder audio and they do a better job of retaining audio quality when you turn the decibels up.


In this buyer’s guide you won’t find many industry leading brands that deliver a premium sound profile. The solar power speaker marketplace is packed with brands that are newcomers without an established reputation. Therefore, you need to do more research to ensure that you can trust the build quality and customer service.

You can also read customer reviews of speakers from unfamiliar brands. It’s a way of figuring out if there is enough quality in the speaker so that you’re able to buy with confidence. The top brands have not tried to capture the solar power marketplace. That’s because the power source doesn’t provide enough power for impactful music.


Solar speakers need to harvest energy by being outdoors, which means they are prone to weather and other damage types. Therefore, these speakers need to have excellent durability and here are the top things to consider:

  • Warranty: check the warranty deal to ensure that the brand has a lot of faith in their speaker. A good warranty deal indicates durability is at the forefront of the design. It also gives you the peace of mind that defects and workmanship errors can be fixed.
  • Waterproof: the speakers must be waterproof if you are to leave them outdoors. Look for a waterproof rating of at least IPX4 so that the speaker can withstand rain. It also helps if the speaker can be placed in water for pools. Some speakers such as the Ecoxgear Sol Jam can float in water, which is a practical touch to the design.
  • Shockproof: speakers may take a few knocks when outdoors, which means a shockproof speaker is advantageous. There are plenty of shock proof speakers in this buyer’s guide to choose from.

Wireless connectivity

The majority of speakers in this buyer’s guide offers wireless connectivity. However, you need to be aware of the characteristics to get the best performance for your needs. Firstly, consider the Bluetooth version to figure out the kind of range and audio consistency you can expect. You’ll achieve at least 33 feet worth of range which is enough if you have a small garden.

Bluetooth is ideal if you want to control the audio at a distance using your smartphone. It can act as a remote that’s used when you don’t want to interact with the device directly.

Wireless devices require battery life so you need to know the maximum running time per charge. The solar panels of these speakers keep the battery topped up if you store the speaker where it has access to daylight.

Extra features

Getting a great deal is about looking for extra features that add value to the purchase. Some solar power speakers in this buyer’s guide are packed with awesome functionality that you never knew existed. Here are the top extra features to keep an eye out for:

  • LED’s: some solar speakers come with LED lights such as the Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth Speakers and Soxono Flame Lamp. LED lights add atmosphere, which is ideal for gardens and parties.
  • Portable charging: you never know when you might run out of smartphone or laptop battery power. It’s handy when you have portable chargers around and solar speakers offer that functionality. It’s great if you are going camping and want a reliable source of power.
  • Connectivity options: ideally there should be a choice between Bluetooth and 3.5mm wired. When both options are available you can choose the connectivity type that matches the devices you’re using.

Items by price:

Solar Power Speakers Comparison Table

Make and ModelWeightBattery LifePrice
Elzle Portable1.06 Pounds50 hoursCheck Price
Goal Zero Rock Out1 Pound10 hoursCheck Price
ZeroLemon SolarSound1.1 Pounds72 hoursCheck Price
Soxono Flame Lamp1.1 PoundsN/ACheck Price
Alpine Rock Speaker1.06 Pounds12 hoursCheck Price
Reveal Solar Speaker1.1 Pounds14 hoursCheck Price
Nuboom Outdoor1.68 Pounds55 hoursCheck Price
Ecoxgear Sol Jam1.5 Pounds12 hoursCheck Price
Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth
5.16 Pounds20 hoursCheck Price
Eton Soulra XL7 Pounds5 hoursCheck Price

Best Solar Power Speaker Under $50

Are you in the market for the best solar power speaker that won’t put a big dent in your wallet? Then you’ll love the choices on offer in this price bracket. The practicality and list of features at the budget end means you’re getting a good deal. You can expect good durability, long running time, Bluetooth connectivity, and loud audio.

However, you cannot expect premium performance that’s of industry leading quality. Take a look at the pricier categories if you need a boost in performance over what’s offered here.

1. Best Budget: Elzle Portable

Elzle PortableView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.8/5

The Elzle Portable speaker is reasonably priced and is packed with some of the best features in this price bracket. You’ll love the mixture of the long battery life, Bluetooth 4.2, and waterproof nature. Continue reading to learn more about the details of this solar powered Bluetooth speaker.

You’ll achieve 50 hours of running time per charge so you don’t need to charge the device often. You can play around 1,000 songs per charge so it’s ideal for parties where you don’t want to worry about charging time.

The Bluetooth connection allows you to connect at a distance of around 32-49 feet. You can also use the 3.5mm port for a wired connection. It saves battery life and is an alternative for devices that are not Bluetooth compatible.

The audio profile is well-balanced and allows for detailed highs that contribute to good audio. You’ll also love the thumping bass that adds impact to bass boosted audio. The APT-X chip HD technology allows for competitive audio quality that sounds amazing.

The waterproof and shockproof design means that there is excellent protection from the elements. Therefore, you can take the speaker to the park or garden without worrying about damage. The speaker can absorb a lot of impact before the audio drivers are damaged. The speaker can be dropped from a height of 6.5 feet without damage.

The Elzle Portable is a nice choice but you need to think about the negatives before making the choice to buy. Firstly, the speaker audio is not of premium quality so you need to set realistic expectations before buying. Also, the included microphone can struggle to pick up your voice so using voice assistant is not practical.

To summarize, the Elzle Portable is the correct option for buyers that want a mix of durability, long battery life, and the latest Bluetooth connectivity. The speaker is fairly priced and highly rated by previous buyers. Therefore, you can buy confidently knowing that you’re getting a competitive product.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 1.06 Pounds
Battery life: 50 hours
Bluetooth: 4.2
The Pros
Waterproof and shockproof
50+ hours battery life
Excellent value for money
The Cons
Microphone could be better

2. Goal Zero Rock Out

Goal Zero Rock OutView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.7/5

The Goal Zero Rock Out solar speaker is a compact unit that’s ideal for traveling. Leave it out in the sun periodically and you’ll never run out of battery life. You’ll also love the stable Bluetooth connection, waterproof design, and good bass. Continue reading to learn more about the intricacies of the Goal Zero Rock Out speaker.

The 800mAh battery is not the largest in size so it only has 10 hours of running time. However, the efficient solar panels mean that keeping the battery topped up will not be an issue. You can also charge the device using a USB cable. It’s handy when there is no sunlight around and you want to fully charge the battery life for the day ahead.

The Bluetooth enabled device allows for one touch pairing. Therefore, connecting with new Bluetooth compatible devices isn’t a chore. You can also connect to devices via USB if you don’t have Bluetooth compatible devices.

The adventure-ready unit can withstand heavy rain and shock damage. The speaker will not wear out on you in the middle of the journey. Also, there are practical buttons at the front that can be used to skip tracks and alter the volume. The ergonomic design is evident from the first moment you hold the speaker in your hands.

The Goal Zero Rock Out speaker is a good choice but don’t buy before considering a few of the negatives. Firstly, the strong bass that’s advertised might not provide the impact you need for an immersive listening experience. Also, the 10 hour battery life could be increased so that you’re able to use the device for longer when you have forgotten to leave it out in the sun.

Overall, the Goal Zero Rock Out speaker is the right choice if you’re after a portable speaker that can withstand an arduous journey. You’ll love the mixture of the Bluetooth, wired connectivity, high efficiency solar panels, and practical buttons. It’s a highly rated unit that the marketplace has embraced with open arms.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 1 Pound
Battery life: 10 hours
Bluetooth: yes
The Pros
Small and portable
High efficiency solar panel
The Cons
Bass could be improved

3. ZeroLemon SolarSound

ZeroLemon SolarSoundView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.6/5

The ZeroLemon SolarSound is a highly rated solar speaker that offers a nice blend of long running time and decent audio quality. It comes with strong bass so it’s a good choice for parties. Continue reading to learn more about the features included with this speaker.

10W of audio is provided that’s ideal for small to medium rooms. Also, it will provide good audio outside if you have the speaker close by. The dual performance drivers deliver crystal clear notes across the frequency range. Therefore, quality is retained for all music types.

The 10,000mAh battery allows you to charge devices such as smartphones and laptops. Therefore, it can act as a portable charging station and that’s ideal for camping trips. However, charging and playing music at the same time can drain the battery fast. You’ll achieve 72 hours of running time per charge, which is equivalent to 1,500 songs.

Bluetooth 4.0 is added so you can connect compatible devices up to 32 feet away. Also, the speaker reconnects to the last used device. It’s convenient if you mainly use one device and don’t want the hassle of manually connecting every time.

The ZeroLemon SolarSound is a good choice but consider a few of the negatives for a balanced overview. Firstly, the unit has a cheap visual design so it lacks the style to impress. Also, the build quality could be better so it can withstand the harshest of environments for prolonged periods.

To conclude, the ZeroLemon SolarSound is the right choice for buyers that want an affordable speaker with practical features. You’ll love the mixture of the low asking price, long battery life, portable charging capabilities, and Bluetooth. Also, the audio quality isn’t too bad for a budget solar power speaker.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 1.1 Pounds
Battery life: 72 hours
Bluetooth: 4.0
The Pros
Extra-long battery life
Can charge devices like smartphones and laptops
Good value for money
The Cons
Visual design could be better

4. Soxono Flame Lamp

Soxono Flame LampView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.5/5

The Solar Torch Lights is a cool choice that offers excellent practicality for the garden. It’s a flame lamp and speaker in one so you get a lot of use out of the product. It adds a lot of character to the atmosphere, which is ideal for parties, gatherings, and chilling out in the garden. Read onwards to learn more about what the Solar Torch Lights bring to the table.

This speaker is in the form of a stick that has a flame-like light at the top. It’s an LED that mimics a flame and the effect is nice at night. You could add some flame audio or other ambient noise to give your garden an awesome atmosphere. The affordable price means you can invest in several units to place around your garden. You can link two Soxono Flame Lamp unit so that the same audio is played by both.

Built-in sensors are added that avoids the LED lights from activating when there is bright light. Therefore, during the day the lights will go off and come on when it gets dark. The feature contributes to a hands-off approach where you don’t have to activate and deactivate the speakers.

The Bluetooth communication range is 10-15m and works over the frequency range of 2402MHz-2480MHz. 40mm speaker drivers are used that provide decent audio quality but don’t expect a premium sound. Also, Bluetooth is automatically turned off when there is no connection within 10 minutes to save battery life.

The Soxono Flame Lamp is an interesting choice but you need to think about the negatives before proceeding to buy. Firstly, the lack of strong audio means it’s not the best choice for parties. You may need many of these units to provide impactful audio that impresses your guests. Also, durability can be a factor if the speaker takes physical knocks.

To conclude, the Soxono Flame Lamp is a niche choice for buyers that want to add atmosphere to their garden. The mix of the speaker and flame is a nice touch that comes to life with the added Bluetooth connectivity. It’s reasonably priced so it can be an impulse purchase – give it a try.

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Tech Specs
Weight: 1.1 Pounds
Battery life: N/A
Bluetooth: Yes
The Pros
Unique LED flame light and speaker design
Can connect two units together
Built-in sensors means the lights only turn on in the dark
The Cons
Audio quality could be improved

Best Solar Power Speaker Under $100

The speakers here offer some of the best value for money that’s available on the market. These speakers provide good audio quality, solid durability, and are highly rated by the marketplace. There are also some unique designs such as a speaker that mimics a rock. They are ideal for placing in the garden without worrying about weathering effect due to the advanced durability.

The speakers in this price bracket don’t provide amazing audio quality where party guests will be impressed. You’re getting excellent practicality with these speakers, which is the main selling point.

5. Best Value: Alpine Rock Speaker

Alpine Rock SpeakerView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.8/5

As the name suggests this speaker has the appearance of a rock. Therefore, it’s ideal for the garden since it will blend in. There are no wires with this speaker. Simply place it out in the sun and the solar charging mechanism will keep the battery topped up. Continue reading to learn more about the intricacies of this speaker.

The speaker is capable of blasting sound in a 50-foot radius, which is ideal for small to medium sized gardens. It can set the atmosphere at a party or social gathering. However, the audio drivers don’t have an advanced implementation so you need to set realistic standards for the music.

The durable and lightweight construction ensures the speaker will stand the test of time. It’s water resistant so there is no need to bring the speaker indoors during a heavy downpour. Also, the durable material will not wear away quickly from physical knocks.

The battery lasts for 12 hours per charge, which means you don’t have to worry about running out for the entire day when fully charged. However, constant use can drain the battery if there is not enough solar power to recharge the unit.

The Alpine Rock Speaker is an interesting choice but consider a few of the negatives for a balanced overview. Firstly, the speaker doesn’t come with Bluetooth so you can’t connect your smartphone at a distance. Also, there is no way to change the audio profile so you don’t have much customization to play around with the settings.

To summarize, the Alpine Rock Speaker offers a unique touch that’s ideal for the garden. The rock like appearance ensures the speaker doesn’t stick out like a sore thumb. However, the lack of Bluetooth and advanced customization features means it’s not the best experience possible.

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Tech Specs
Weight: 1.06 Pounds
Battery life: 12 hours
Bluetooth: No
The Pros
Unique rock appearance
No need for wires
The Cons
No Bluetooth

6. Reveal Solar Speaker

Reveal Solar SpeakerView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.7/5

The Reveal Solar Speaker comes packed with modern technology such as Bluetooth and can act as a portable charging station. The manufacturer has carefully considered the end user when adding these practical functions. Delve deeper into the features to figure out if the Reveal Solar Speaker is the right choice for your needs.

The Bluetooth connection works at a range of 33 feet and is compatible with all smartphones. Therefore, you can connect at a distance and control the audio without physically interacting with the unit.

The solar powered unit has a battery life of 15 hours so you can use the speaker for the entire day when fully charged. Leave the speaker out in the sun and you can have enough battery life without the need to use a power outlet. Also, you can charge devices such as MP3 players and smartphones. Therefore, the speaker is ideal if you are going on a long camping trip and need a portable charging source.

The unit is manufactured from sustainable bamboo, which means it is an environmentally conscious choice. The brand claims that a tree can be planted for every product sold, which cannot be said for most speakers in the marketplace. The bamboo also looks visually appealing since it gives it a nice character. However, the downside is that durability against weather is not the best.

The Reveal Solar Speaker is a classy choice but you need to think about a few of the negatives before buying. Firstly, there are no audio customization features that allow you to change the sound profile. Also, the wood based speaker might wear out sooner than alternatives in this buyer’s guide.

Overall, the Reveal Solar Speaker is a competitive choice for buyers that love wood based designs. The bamboo finish of this speaker means it looks great and the Bluetooth connection adds practicality. Consider the features offered carefully and figure out if it’s the right choice for your needs.

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Tech Specs
Weight: 1.1 Pounds
Battery life: 14 hours
Bluetooth: yes
The Pros
Unique wood based design
Eco friendly
Decent battery life
The Cons
Durability is limited

7. Nuboom Outdoor

Nuboom OutdoorView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.6/5

The Nuboom Outdoor is a practical unit that comes with good durability and wireless connectivity. It’s fairly priced so you’re getting a competitive deal compared to alternatives on the market. Continue reading to learn more about the features offered.

This speaker is shockproof and waterproof so it can withstand weathering effects. Therefore, you can store it outdoors to harvest light regardless of the weather. Furthermore, the speaker can be dropped from a height of 6.5 feet without damage so you can be heavy handed.

You’ll achieve 55 hours of running time via the 4400mAh battery when listening at 70% volume. Therefore, you don’t need to charge the battery often, which is great if you don’t live in an area where there is low sunlight. The efficient solar panel allows for 30 minutes of playing time when the speaker is left for 10 minutes in direct sunlight.

Bluetooth 4.0 is added that allows you to connect with devices such as your smartphone and laptop. The connectivity range is 32 feet and you are unlikely to experience audio hiccups. Furthermore, there is a 3.5mm mini jack cable so you can switch over to a wired setup. That’s ideal when you want to conserve battery life or have run out of juice.

The Nuboom Outdoor speaker is a nice choice but think about a few of the negatives before buying. Firstly, the simplistic design lacks character. The basic design gives the speaker a cheap feel that could have been avoided. Also, the included microphone can struggle to hear your voice accurately. Therefore, you need to repeat yourself or speak very clearly.

To summarize, the Nuboom Outdoor offers a good blend of practicality and attention to detail. The mixture of Bluetooth, extra durability, strong bass, and included microphone means there is a lot to like here. It’s well-rated by the market so you can buy confidently knowing that you’re getting a good piece of kit.

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Tech Specs
Weight: 1.68 Pounds
Battery life: 55 hours
Bluetooth: yes
The Pros
Good durability
Can charge your devices
3D stereo sound
Fast charging speed
The Cons
Visual aesthetics could be improved

Best Solar Power Speaker Under $200

In this price bracket you’ll find the best solar power speakers the market has to offer. Expect advanced durability that’s ideal for camping trips. Also, audio quality is decent so you can enjoy clarity and high fidelity. Manufacturers have given these speakers a lot of thought so that you’re able to use the speaker that matches your preferences.

These solar power speakers are expensive so you need to give them an extra dose of scrutiny. Take the time to carefully evaluate the features to ensure they match up with your requirements.

8. Top Pick: Ecoxgear Sol Jam

Ecoxgear Sol JamView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.9/5

The Ecoxgear Sol Jam is a cool addition to the marketplace that offers some of the best performance in the solar power marketplace. You’ll love the mixture of excellent durability, portable charging capability, and strong warranty deal. Take a closer look at the featured offered to determine if there is enough value for the asking price.

The speaker has a waterproof rating of IP67, which means it can be submerged in water for up to 30 minutes. Furthermore, the speaker can float so you don’t have to worry about it getting knocked overboard.

High efficiency solar panels are used that increases the speaker charging rate. Therefore, it can charge the speaker when sunlight intensity is low. The battery life is 12 hours so you can enjoy music for the entire day when the speaker is charged.

The 3 year warranty deal covers defects in workmanship and materials. However, if you damage the speaker yourself then you cannot get help from the customer service team. The coverage is offered from the original purchase date.

There is a down firing subwoofer that adds a lot of immersion to the experience. Strong bass is ideal if you want to have a party with immersive music. Also, there is a 3.5mm AUX input that delivers an alternative way of using the speaker.

The Ecoxgear Sol Jam offers good performance but consider a few of the disadvantages for a balanced overview. Firstly, the speaker size is large so portability is out of the question. You may need to use a car if you want to use the speaker at your local park. Also, it’s one of the more expensive solar power speakers so value for money isn’t the best.

To summarize, the Ecoxgear Sol Jam speaker is great for the garden or camping trips. The advanced durability is one of the key selling points that allows the speaker to withstand harsh environments. However, it’s a large unit that is on the pricey side so consider the available features carefully before buying.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 1.5 Pounds
Battery life: 12 hours
Bluetooth: yes
The Pros
Excellent durability and it floats
High efficiency solar panel
Decent battery life
The Cons
Large size

9. Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth Speakers

Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth SpeakersView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.8/5

This is a set of two lantern speakers that also come with LED lights. It’s ideal for gardens and similar locations where you can leave the units out for prolonged periods. The functionality here is excellent and worthy of your attention.

The Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth Speakers connect via the 5.8GHz frequency band so the connection speed is excellent. You can sync up to 200 of these speakers at once, which is great for parties and events. Bluetooth can be used to connect via your smartphone or laptop. It’s a great way of controlling audio while you are at a distance from the lanterns.

The running time per charge at medium volume is 20 hours. The maximum charging time is 3 hours and the battery capacity is 6600mAh. This offers enough performance for a practical listening experience. The long running time and solar charging mean there is no need to worry about battery maintenance.

The lantern adds a sense of character to the area that is a nice touch. A handle is available at the top so you can easily carry the lanterns around. Therefore, it’s great if you want to illuminate your surroundings when it gets dark.

The speakers are IPX5 water resistant so they can handle a lot of water before wearing out. That’s ideal if you plan on leaving the speakers outside around the clock regardless of the weather.

The Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth Speakers add something unique but don’t ignore the negatives for a balanced overview. Firstly, durability could be better so that physical knocks don’t damage the speaker. It’s likely that you will drop the speaker a few times when walking around in the dark. Also, the lack of bass means the speakers are not the best choice for demanding party guests.

To conclude, the Olafus Outdoor Bluetooth Speakers offers a nice mix of long battery life and LED lighting. The product fits a specific purpose so it might not meet your requirements. However, if you have a garden to store these speakers then it’s an interesting buy.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 5.16 Pounds
Battery life: 20 hours
Bluetooth: yes
The Pros
Light source
IPX5 water resistant
Can connect up to 200 of these units
The Cons
Durability could be improved

10. Eton Soulra XL

Eton Soulra XLView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.6/5

The Eton Soulra XL offers premium audio quality and a rugged design for the Apple smartphone owner. It’s compatible with iPhone and iPods so you can use the device on a trip or at a local park. Delve deeper into the features to figure out if there is enough quality for the asking price.

The 22W of power output means you’ll love the impactful music that’s coming out of these large speakers. There is a bass boost which is ideal for parties and fans of bass boosted music. The audio sounds impactful and will have you rocking your head when the volume is turned up. Audio is surprisingly stable as you turn the volume up.

There is an LED system to tell you how much the battery is charged. It takes 5 hours for the speaker to fully charge in the sun but that depends on sunlight intensity. Also, the running time is 5 hours which varies based on how you are using the speaker. You can also charge Apple devices using the speaker. It’s ideal when there is no other power source nearby. It can help you avoid the pain of running out of smartphone battery life when you need it most.

The device is ergonomically designed with a carrying handle. However, the large size means you may need a car to transport the unit. Also, durability is questionable so you shouldn’t leave the device out while it is raining.

The Eton Soulra XL offers great functionality for Apple users, but you need to think about a few of the drawbacks before buying. Firstly, the lack of outdoor durability severely limits how you can use the speaker. Also, the extra-large size means that you need to carefully think about how you’ll transport the speaker.

To summarize, the Eton Soulra XL speaker is a notable option for Apple users that want a solar powered unit. You’ll love the mix of the strong bass, large power output, portable charging capabilities, and premium looking design. However, the large size means that you’ll need to think about the logistics of using the speaker.

View on Amazon

Tech Specs
Weight: 7 Pounds
Battery life: 5 hours
Bluetooth: no
The Pros
Great for Apple users
Portable charging station
Strong bass
The Cons
Battery life could be improved

The post 10 Best Solar Powered Speakers appeared first on 3D Insider.

Cheryl Macleod: "3D Printing Was Appealing To Me"

Cheryl Macleod [Source: Women in 3D Printing]

Cheryl Macleod is the global head of 3D fusion science at HP and is based in Corvallis, Oregon.

Cheryl started at HP in 1997 as a product development manager and has since worked her way up to oversee the deep science behind the materials that drive HP’s business – the powders and agents that are used in 3D printing. Cheryl graduated from the University of Iowa with a Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering and holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from UC Berkeley.

Nora Toure: Cheryl, could you let us know about your background and what brought you to 3D printing in the first place?

Cheryl Macleod: I’ve been with HP for 25 years and joined the company shortly after earning my Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California at Berkeley. Most of my career was spent in our 2D printing business in a multitude of R&D leadership roles around the world including Barcelona, San Diego, Singapore and now Corvallis, Oregon.

3D printing was appealing to me because I love working at the cutting edge, creating entirely new categories of products and introducing innovative technology into the market. 3D printing is the next big opportunity, not just for HP but for the world. It brings together my love for chemical engineering and materials with my passion for creating new innovative products.

Nora Toure: Can you describe your very first experience with 3D Printing?

Cheryl Macleod: It was about 20 years ago. I was at HP’s Corvallis Oregon site and attended a local employee innovation fair. I saw a group had taken a DeskJet printer and transformed it into a 3D printer that I believe took layers of paper fiber and binded the paper fiber with fluid jetted out of the printer.

This was the first time I had seen anything like this, and it may have been the first time anyone at HP designed a 3D printer. It was really just a skunkworks project that our employees created in their spare time for fun, but it also opened my eyes to what could be done in the future.

Nora Toure: You’ve worked at HP for 25 years. Do you remember when HP started to be interested in investigating Additive Manufacturing? Was there a specific event that led to HP investing resources into building AM equipment?

Cheryl Macleod: We started to get serious about 3D printing for this first time in around 2010. Our Barcelona team formed a partnership with a 3D printing company for a pilot where we would resell the device as HP branded. It gave us the opportunity to test the market, start to get to know our customer base and understand what it would take for us to be successful.

This pilot convinced us that we had to make a pitch to our executive staff. But we couldn’t go in with a me-too play. We had to show that we could deliver a compelling technology advantage that was truly unique in order for the company to invest in a big way.

Through the hard work of team members from our Barcelona and San Diego offices, as well as HP Labs, we had our own eureka moment six months later, where we discovered the Multi Jet Fusion process and its game-changing technology advantages.

Read more at Women In 3D Printing

Influence of biological maturity on the match performance of 8 to 16 year old elite male youth soccer players

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of biological maturity on match performance in elite youth male soccer players. The participants were 80 Premier League Academy outfield players (8-16 years old). Biological maturity was determined by calculating estimated chronological age at peak height velocity. The U9 and U10 squads played 6-a-side and the U11-U16 squads played 11-a-side inter-academy matches. All matches were analyzed using a 1 Hz Global Positioning System (SPI elite, GPSport, Australia) with squad specific speed zones which were calculated based on 5 m flying sprint speed in the last 5 m of 10 m sprint test. In the U9/U10s, earlier maturers were given a longer pitch time by coaches (∼4 min per match, p = 0.029) and covered a greater total distance (∼9%, ∼400 m, p = 0.037) and a greater distance by walking (∼13%, ∼100 m, p = 0.024) and jogging (∼12%, ∼200 m, p = 0.014) during a match compared to later maturers. In the U13/U14s, earlier maturers covered a greater distance per hour of a match by high speed running compared to later maturers (∼25%, ∼130 m, p = 0.028) and spent a longer percentage of time in high speed running during a match compared to later maturers (3.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.034). Thus, coaches should take care to provide all players with a similar pitch-time and should be aware in the talent identification and development process, particularly with the U13/U14 age group, that maturity can influence high speed match running performance.
Contact details of corresponding author: Heita Goto Address: 1-8, Jiyugaoka,Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka, 807-8585, Japan Phone number: 81-(0)93-693-3425 E-mail address:
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

Conserved CxnC motifs in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF66 are required for viral late gene expression and are essential for its interaction with ORF34 [Genome Replication and Regulation of Viral Gene Expression]

Late gene transcription in the beta- and gammaherpesviruses depends on a set of virally-encoded transcriptional activators (vTAs) that hijack the host transcriptional machinery and direct it to a subset of viral genes that are required for completion of the viral replication cycle and capsid assembly. In Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), these vTAs are encoded by ORF18, ORF24, ORF30, ORF31, ORF34, ORF66. Assembly of the vTAs into a complex is critical for late gene transcription, and thus deciphering the architecture of the complex is central to understanding its transcriptional regulatory activity. Here, we generated an ORF66-null virus and confirmed that it fails to produce late genes and infectious virions. We show that ORF66 is incorporated into the vTA complex primarily through its interaction with ORF34, which is dependent upon a set of four conserved cysteine-rich motifs in the C-terminal domain of ORF66. While both ORF24 and ORF6-6 occupy the canonical K8.1 late gene promoter, their promoter occupancy requires the presence of the other vTAs, suggesting that sequence-specific, stable binding requires assembly of the entire complex on the promoter. Additionally, we find that ORF24 expression is impaired in the absence of a stable vTA complex. This work extends our knowledge about the architecture of the KSHV vPIC and suggests that it functions as a complex to recognize late gene promoters.

IMPORTANCE Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that is the causative agent of multiple human cancers. Release of infectious virions requires production of capsid proteins and other late genes, whose production are transcriptionally controlled by a complex of six virally-encoded proteins that hijack the host transcription machinery. It is poorly understood how this complex assembles or what function five of its six components play in transcription. Here, we demonstrate that ORF66 is an essential component of this complex in KSHV and that its inclusion in the complex depends upon its C-terminal domain, which contains highly conserved cysteine-rich motifs reminiscent of zinc finger motifs. Additionally, we examine assembly of the viral pre-initiation complex at late gene promoters and find that while sequence-specific binding of late gene promoters requires ORF24, it additionally requires a fully assembled viral pre-initation complex.

Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Law Enforcement Agency Recruits: Relationship to Performance in Physical Fitness Tests

Lockie, RG, Ruvalcaba, TR, Stierli, M, Dulla, JM, Dawes, JJ, and Orr, RM. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in law enforcement agency recruits: relationship to performance in physical fitness tests. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018—Law enforcement agencies (LEAs) use tests to assess recruit physical fitness. Body fat can influence test performance but is difficult to measure during academy because of time, equipment constraints, and instructor knowledge. This study examined relationships between waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), practical measures of fat distribution, and fitness test performance. Retrospective analysis of 267 LEA recruits (age: ∼28 years; height: ∼1.73 m; and body mass: ∼80 kg; 219 males and 48 females) was conducted. The tests included: WC and WHR; grip strength; push-ups, sit-ups, and arm ergometer revolutions in 60 seconds; vertical jump (VJ); medicine ball throw; 75-yd pursuit run (75PR); and multistage fitness test (MSFT) shuttles. Partial correlations, controlling for sex, calculated relationships between WC, WHR, and the fitness tests. Recruits were split into quartile groups (based on the sample size) for WC and WHR (group 1 had the lowest WC and WHR; and group 4 the highest). A 1-way multivariate analysis of variance, with sex as a covariate and Bonferroni post hoc, compared between-group test performance. A greater WC related to lesser push-up, sit-up, VJ, 75PR, and MSFT performance (p ≤ 0.024). When recruits were split into WC groups, group 4 had lesser performance in push-ups, sit-ups, VJ, and the 75PR compared with all groups (p ≤ 0.038). When split into WHR groups, group 4 performed less push-ups than group 1, less MSFT shuttles than group 3, and had a lower VJ compared with all groups (p ≤ 0.042). Recruits with a greater WC tended to have poorer fitness test performance.
Address correspondence to Robert G. Lockie,
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

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