Looking for Complementary Intensity Variables in Different Training Games in Football

Casamichana, D, Castellano, J, Díaz, AG, and Martín-García, A. Searching for Mathematical intensity Factors in different training Matches in football.

J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2018–The main aim of this study was to identify that combination of outside intensity training load (iTL) metrics catch similar or unique advice for different training match (TG) formats and official matches (OMs) in football with all principal component (PC) analysis. Ten manners of iTL were accumulated by 24 professional male football players using global positioning technology. A total of 348, 383, 120, 127, 148, and 207 individual files for small-sided possession matches, medium-sided ownership matches, small-sided games, even medium-sided games, even large-sided games, along with OMs, respectively, were studied. Principal component analysis was conducted on each individual game format. Extraction criteria were put at an eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract more than one PC. For the very first PC, eigenvalues for each game format ranged from 3.89 into 4.45, which explained 39–44% of the information (i.e., variance) supplied by the 10 iTL metrics. For the next PC, eigenvalues ranged from 2.17 to 2.47, explaining 2-2 –26 percent of iTL details. For the 3rd PC, eigenvalues ranged from 1.41 into 1.98, explaining 14–20% of iTL info. This would imply that TG and OM have multidimensional requirements; therefore the utilization of just an individual iTL could potentially lead to an under estimation of their physical requirements. Thus, a mix of 3 iTL metrics is required during professional football game formats.
Copyright © 20-19 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Address correspondence to Andrés Martín-García, andres.martin@fcbarcelona.cat.

A lysine residue essential for geminivirus replication also controls nuclear localization of the TYLCV Rep protein. [Virus-Cell Interactions]

Geminiviruses are ssDNA viruses that infect an extensive range of plants. To promote viral replication, geminiviruses control the host cell cycle. The viral protein Rep is crucial to reprogram the cell cycle and then initiate viral DNA replication by interacting with an array of atomic host facets. Even though many protein domains of Rep have been characterized, little is understood concerning its own nuclear targeting. Here, we show that one conserved lysine in the N-terminal portion of Rep is pivotal for nuclear localization of the Rep protein out of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) with two other lysines also causing its nuclear import. We show that mutating these lysines contributes to atomic exception of TYLCV Rep without undermining its interaction with all SCE1. Furthermore, the capability of TYLCV Rep to promote viral DNA replication additionally depends upon this exceptionally conserved lysine independently of its position in export of Rep. Our data thus demonstrate that this lysine potentially includes a broad function in geminivirus replication, however its role in nuclear import and SCE1-binding differs depending upon the Rep protein examined.
We define this a exceptionally conserved lysine is essential for atomic of Rep in three distinct begomoviruses. To your knowledge, it may be the very first time that nuclear localization is well known for virtually any geminiviral Rep protein. Our data adds still yet another key function for the lysine residue, moreover its functions in viral DNA replication and interaction with host factors, like the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme.

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6 Best Smart Earbuds of 2019

No one wants to get tangled up in wires while working out to a heart-pumping playlist. That’s why they first came out, wireless earbuds proved to be a success. Now that the market has matured, manufacturers are stepping their game up and introducing models with smart features into their earbud lineups.

These smart earbuds combine wireless listening with useful tools like heart monitors, fitness trackers, or voice assistants. They give you the freedom of enjoying music everywhere and without distraction but quickly let you tune back into the real world when needed. They have long-lasting batteries, resist sweat & dust, and fit comfortably inside your ear.

These are the six best smart earphones you can buy today. They’re all high-quality gadgets, so each one is a good choice. Still, every pair also has unique features which make it stand out either because of how good it sounds, how easy it is to operate with touch alone, or what it can do to help improve your fitness. Choose the right smart earbuds for you and forever transform the way you listen to music on the go.

VI Sense Wireless Headphones
Battery life (hours): 6
Water resistant: Yes
Excellent virtual trainer, comfortable fit, and reasonable price.
Check Amazon
Best Value
Apple AirPods
Battery life (hours): 24
Water resistant: No
This has intuitive controls and pairs easily with other Apple products.
Check Amazon
Top Pick
Jabra Elite Active 65t
Battery life (hours): 15
Water resistant: Yes
Great companion app, HearThrough and equalizer features.
Check Amazon

Smart Earbuds Comparison Table

Make and ModelRatingBattery
Jabra Elite Active 65t4.915Yes2Check Price
Apple AirPods4.724No1Check Price
Bragi – The Dash4.615Yes1Check Price
Nuheara IQBUDS4.516Yes1Check Price
Samsung Gear IconX (2018 Edition)4.310Yes1Check Price
VI Sense Wireless Headphones4.16Yes1Check Price

1. Best Overall – Jabra Elite Active 65t

Jabra Elite Active 65tView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.9/5

The problem with many completely wireless earbuds is that they aren’t suitable for intense workouts. On one hand, their noise-canceling tips won’t let you hear oncoming traffic while you jog. On the other, they’ll become an expensive piece of dead electronics if sweat gets inside them. Enter Jabra’s Elite Active 65t, an upgraded version of their already excellent Elite 65t which boasts a water-resistant rating of IP6 and a long-lasting battery. The earbuds fit tightly, have amazing sound quality considering they’re wireless, and come with a comprehensive app.

Overview of Features

The 65t’s are stylish wireless earbuds available in either blue with copper trim or black trimmed with titanium. Unlike AirPods, they’re unobtrusive. Someone would have to look really hard to notice you’re wearing them, and even then they might not catch the subtle signs of quality like a small protruding tip or the Jabra logo.

These earbuds fit perfectly and will NOT budge! The trick is to pick one of three silicone inserts which fits your ear the best, insert the earbuds, and give them a forward twist. Now they’re securely in place and won’t fall out even if someone bumps into you on a crowded train ride!

You charge the earbuds by placing them inside a small yet robust carrying case that doubles as a charger. They last for five hours when full. Better yet, the carrying case itself acts as a power bank and can store enough power to fully charge the earbuds two more times. This gives you fifteen hours of play time before you have to reach for the USB charger.

The sound quality is outstanding! Whether you’re working out to songs with killer baselines or listening to an audiobook while commuting to work, the sound is bright and adequately punchy. If the default presets aren’t to your liking, you can use the equalizer found in the Jabra Sound+ app to adjust the way treble and bass sound. HearThrough is another essential feature that comes in handy during workouts. Activating it allows ambient sounds to pass through the otherwise noise-canceling earbuds.

The app has Active mode that lets you track workout data like distance traveled and calories burned since the 65ts have a built-in accelerometer. It also lets you activate your phone’s AI assistant through the earbuds, be that Alexa, Siri, or Google Assistant. Its layout is well thought-out and simplistic, letting you access any important settings without distracting you from working out or chilling.

What We Didn’t Like

For safety reasons, the app doesn’t let you turn HearThrough off while you’re in Active mode. This means you can’t fully immerse yourself in music and track your stats even if the environment you’re running in is entirely safe. If you remove the right earbud, whatever was playing will automatically pause. While this is a cool feature, it means you can only remove the left bud if you want to listen with one ear.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 15 hours
Water-resistant: Yes
Warranty: 1 year on parts, 2 years on water & dust damage
The Pros
Excellent sound quality
Stay securely in place no matter what
Great companion app
HearThrough and equalizer features
The Cons
Listening through single earbud is limited to the right one
HearThrough can’t be turned off in Active mode

2. Best Value – Apple AirPods

Apple AirPodsAmazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.7/5

Apple’s AirPods are responsible for ushering in the age of truly wireless earbuds. Three years later, and they’re still holding their own! AirPods aren’t just a status symbol – they’re a cleverly designed piece of audio tech that’s great for everything from listening to music through taking phone calls to augmenting your hearing. They feature the most straightforward setup process ever, hours of listening without needing a recharge, and a reasonable price! Even if you aren’t a fan of Apple, the AirPods are worth it because of quality alone.

Overview of Features

Who’d think that the way wireless earbuds look could spark a controversy? Love it or hate it, the AirPods are glaringly white and have sticks that dangle from them. Their look isn’t everyone’s cup of tea, but the AirPods are nothing if not unmistakable. They’re also comfortable and easy to adjust. You control the AirPods by tapping or pressing down on them. A short tap on either one will summon Siri while double-tapping answers a call. Double-tapping can be customized through the app to be used for other actions as well.

One of the AirPods’ main selling points is their exceptional battery life. They come inside a rounded white case which fills them up four times without needing a charge itself. The buds work for 5 hours per charge, which rises to a whopping 24 hours if you also use the case. The best part about charging the AirPods is that it’s done quickly. Place them inside the case, and they’ll run for 3 hours after just 15 minutes! You can find out how much juice is left both in the AirPods and the case by holding it close to an iPhone with the lid open.

The sound quality of the AirPods is on par with what you’re used to from Apple’s standard earbuds. They excel in delivering clear mids and accentuated highs. The base isn’t the best we’ve heard, but it doesn’t fall flat either. Voice communication is where the AirPods truly shine, delivering natural sounding voices in high fidelity.

We love how practical the AirPods are. Pairing them to your iPhone involves merely selecting them from a list! Dong so with non-Apple devices takes longer but is possible. Practicality extends to battery saving too. Removing one bud will pause your music while doing so with both stops it altogether. You can still use a single bud even if the other one ran out of juice!

What’s Bad About It?

The AirPods aren’t noise-cancelling headphones. You’ll be able to hear the world around you to a degree whether it’s nearby traffic or people speaking in an adjacent room. They also aren’t suitable for strenuous workouts since they aren’t water-resistant.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 24 hours
Water-resistant: No
Warranty: 1 year
The Pros
Excellent value for the money
Exceptional battery life
Intuitive controls
Pairs easily with other Apple products
The Cons
Not water-resistant
No noise-canceling

3. Bragi – The Dash

Bragi – The DashView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.6/5

Bragi’s Dash is the world’s first hearable – it combines the features of wearable fitness trackers with truly wireless earbuds to give you a seamless, hands-free exercise experience. The earbuds look stylish, have a unique aural user interface, and come with an app specifically tailored to monitor three activities – running, cycling, and swimming. The only thing preventing us from putting the Dash higher on the list is its steep price. If you don’t mind paying extra for the advanced fitness tracking though, they’re a great investment.

Overview of Features

Bragi shares Jabra’s design philosophy when it comes to comfort and a simple yet sophisticated look. Dash earbuds come with three silicone attachments which mold themselves to your ear to ensure a perfect fit. They aren’t wholly noise-canceling on their own, but you can enable that feature with a button press. The buds arrive in a stylish carrying case and are magnetically attached to it during charging. A set of LEDs tells you if they’re full, have some charge, or need recharging by glowing blue, green, or red respectively.

The lack of a visual interface is Dash’s most intriguing feature. You can monitor workouts without bringing your phone just by tapping on or swiping over each earbud! The Dash has a 4GB of built-in memory so you can take your song library wherever you are without relying on Bluetooth. You select the workout you want monitored by pressing and holding the left earbud and then cycling through the options by tapping it.

Once you’re done and the workout begins, you control playback options by performing the same actions on the right earbud. A pleasant-sounding female voice will chime in every five minutes to let you know how you’re doing. You can tap the left bud at any time to hear the report sooner.

The Dash mobile app serves as the command center for your fitness activities. Here’s where you get to look up detailed stats on your workouts – how long you’ve been at it, your heart rate, how many calories you’ve burned, or how many lengths you’ve swum. The app also contains an equalizer and instructions on how to use the dash’s aural interface.

Are There Drawbacks?

Apart from the price, there are two. The earbuds’ battery life is low. One charge lasts for only three hours. The overall battery life is the same as that of the Elite Action 65t because the case can recharge the earbuds five times. Workout data isn’t sorted unless the buds are synced with your phone. This means it’s gone unless you get to your phone before stopping the tracker, which is contrary to the “no phone required” philosophy at the Dash’s core.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 15 hours
Water-resistant: Yes
Warranty: 1 year
The Pros
No visual interface
Can track workouts and play music without phone
Intuitive battery level indicator
App keeps track of many different fitness stats
The Cons
Short battery life
Workout data isn’t saved when not synced with a phone

4. Nuheara IQBUDS

Nuheara IQBUDSView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.5/5

The smart earbuds we’ve discussed so far all had a means of letting you tune into your environment. However, none of them let you control that experience. Nuheara’s IQbuds feature the most in-depth customization options when it comes to hearing the outside world. They can also augment your hearing so you can understand murmured conversation or subtle nuances in music better. They’re the perfect choice if you want to listen to music or podcasts throughout the day and still be able to maintain a conversation.

Overview of Features

The IQbuds are the most understated earbuds we’ve reviewed design-wise. Their light gray & black finish looks good but won’t turn heads. The buds are small and light, so you might have a hard time if one falls out in a public place. This shouldn’t happen though as Nuheara generously provides 8 pairs of inserts. There are four oval and four circular ones ranging from small to extra-large in size. Finding your ideal pair isn’t difficult, and the IQbuds stay inside your hearing canal tightly when paired with them.

The best thing about the IQbuds is the way they let you customize how you hear things other than music through the World feature. You can switch them from being completely noise-canceling to being able to clearly understand a waiter asking for your order with a single command. This is thanks to a touch-activated microphone whose sensitivity you can adjust through the IQbuds app. There you get to play with equalizer settings and decide how much treble or base you want for both music and outside sounds.

Control customization is what we love about the app the most though. Either bud is controlled with swipes, long & short presses, or a series of presses. You choose what each of these actions does through the app! This means you can start playback with a tap on the right bud or activate Siri with a long press on the left, and quickly rearrange the controls if you aren’t satisfied.

The IQbuds excel at reproducing any kind of music. You’ll easily find the balance for your favorite genre whether it’s orchestral music or contemporary hip-hop. Playback keeps the buds’ distance from your phone in mind. The music will pause If you stray out of the 30-foot Bluetooth range, allowing you to get closer without literally missing a beat.

What We Didn’t Like

These earbuds have a sensitive touch sensor. It’s easy to inadvertently trigger a command when you just want to adjust them in your ear, and handling the buds without triggering the sensor is something you’ll need to learn. The microphone is overly sensitive in picking up wind noise. You’ll have a hard time concentrating on music if you keep the World feature on, and phone calls in these conditions are impossible.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 15 hours
Water-resistant: Yes
Warranty: 1 year
The Pros
Precise outside sound control
Long battery life
Control customization
Great all-around sound quality
The Cons
Sensitive touch sensors
Unusable in windy conditions

5. Samsung Gear IconX (2018 Edition)

Samsung Gear IconX (2018 Edition)View on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.3/5

The original Samsung Gear IconX was a solid pair of smart earbuds, but its extremely short battery life kept it from being a serious competitor to the likes of Apple’s AirPods. The 2018 version addresses this issue and brings a host of updates including a virtual coach and the ability to wirelessly transfer songs from your phone to the earbuds. Getting the IconX is a no-brainer for Samsung Galaxy users, and everyone else will benefit from a good set of wireless earbuds with local storage at a reasonable price.

Overview of Features

Samsung went for function rather than form when designing the IconX buds. They aren’t ugly, but their appearance isn’t anything special either, unless you count the garish pink color option. On the other hand, the buds fit perfectly inside your ear and will not budge. Included are sets of three wings and tips which conform themselves to your ears and make sure that the buds stay snugly in place.

Battery life has been addressed by amping up the power of both the IconX and the carrying case. Their internal power reserve went from a measly 90 minutes to 5 hours, 7 if you listen to MP3s from the buds’ 4GB drive instead of streaming it through Bluetooth. The case can bring them up to a full charge for 10 hours in total. You can’t see how much power is left in the case, but each bud has its own battery indicator on the Samsung Gear app.

The IconX’s fitness tracking capabilities are a mix of what’s offered by Bragi and Vi, although the execution isn’t as good. You get a workout planning and fitness tracking tool which measures calories, traveled distances, etc. There’s also the virtual coach who tells you what to do next or how long to run. He’ll even prompt you to slow down to keep in line with the set routine.

The app lets you configure how the buds sound through an equalizer. There are five settings including, dynamic, bass boost, and clear. You’ll want to use bass boost on tracks where the base needs to be punchy for the full effect, but dynamic works best for everything else. You can also turn on Voice Focus, a feature which brings voices to the forefront without messing with song volume. It works, but voices sound strange before you get used to them. Finally, the app facilitates wireless song transfer to the IconX. This only works for Samsung Galaxy phones though.

What’s Bad About It?

This is another pair of earbuds with a trigger-happy sensor. Even movement like head bobbing or chewing can fool the accelerometer into thinking that you’ve taken the earbuds out. This will pause your music and can lead to constant interruptions. Adjusting the volume through touch is a hassle too. You have to slide up or down the bud for the movement to be registered as volume control. This gets interpreted as tapping rather than sliding more often than not though, making you accidentally pause music or stop calls.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 10 hours
Water-resistant: Yes
Warranty: 1 year
The Pros
Onboard music storage
Fits comfortably in any ear
Useful equalizer presets
Capable fitness tracking
The Cons
Sudden head motions may pause playback
Volume is hard to adjust through touch

6. Best Budget Option – VI Sense Wireless Headphones

VI Sense Wireless HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.1/5

Keeping motivation up is key to achieving your fitness goals. For some of us, this involves watching a series of numbers on our phones which get bigger as training progresses. If you’re the type that thrives on fitness stats, the Vi Sense wireless headphone set is the right choice! It has an advanced AI coach who’ll be with you every step of the way. There’s also the fact that they’re the least expensive on our list while not lagging behind the competition in terms of sound quality.

Overview of Features

While Vi’s connection to your phone is wireless, the earphones themselves are not, at least not entirely. They’re attached to a collar you place around your neck and use to control volume and playback. The collar also houses a microphone used to talk to others or Vi, your confident AI coach. These earphones don’t come with a rechargeable case. Rather, you charge them through a MicroUSB cable that connects to the right earphone. A full charge lasts six hours.

Vi Sense are truly smart earphones – it takes two hours of running, walking, or cycling for Vi to learn your patterns and assess your capabilities. After that, you’re presented with personalized training programs and ways to improve your results. The coach is much more responsive than IconX’s. She’ll warn you if you’re pushing yourself too hard and encourage you to try harder if you aren’t doing your best. The engineers that designed her did a fantastic job with simulating a human voice as Vi sounds better than Alexa and assistants like her.

The coach is also adaptive. She’ll give you frequent tips as you’re first starting out and settle into less frequent updates and bouts of encouragement when you establish a routine. You can always change the amount of feedback you get as well as your fitness goals. These are varied and include increasing the distance you can travel, your step count per minute, overall endurance, and so on.

Sound quality is good, but there’s nothing noteworthy about it. Noise cancelation does an excellent job of eliminating the sound of your feet pounding on the pavement. Song clarity and vibrancy are decent. Lows fall short though so you might want to look for alternatives if your workout music is base-heavy.

Are There Drawbacks?

Vi relies heavily on the V Trainer app to pool data, receive updates, and plan your workouts. Using the app is free for the first year. After that, you have to pay a $10/month subscription fee. You communicate with Vi through the microphone. While the experience is fun and interactive when it works, the mic cuts out often, and Vi won’t respond.


Tech Specs
Battery life: 6 hours
Water-resistant: Yes
Warranty: 1 year
The Pros
Excellent virtual trainer
Motivates you to reach your fitness goals
Comfortable fit
Reasonable price
The Cons
Requires monthly subscription after the first year
Low-quality microphone

The post 6 Best Smart Earbuds of 2019 appeared first on 3D Insider.

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Classic Powerlifting Performance: A Systematic Review

Ferland, Both PM and Comtois, AS.

J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019–The aim of this analysis was to review all scientific books associated with able-body drug-tested classic powerlifting operation since January 1, 2012, and to regroup them into a short narrative review. Three electronic databases were searched in August 2018 with the wildcard: powerlift*. A manual search was conducted from the reference set of all retained articles. The search and selection strategy permitted to gather an overall total of 16 scientific articles published in peerreviewed newspapers. Results reveal that practitioners should reevaluate a low-bar squat and an extensive grip benchpress because they often contribute to moving greater heaps, bring more attention to preventing harms, since a reasonable amount of power-lifters appear to coach injured and reevaluate a hypertrophy-power-strength model when prescribing three times each week daily undulating periodization on nonconsecutive days for elbows and seat. Practitioners can also introduce respiratory muscle training, use daily 1 repeat maximum training combined with down collections on experienced athletes and use a rate of perceived exertion scale based on repetitions from book together with an individual pace profile when prescribing intensity. Before rivalry, power-lifters seem to taper in this sequence: the dead lift, the elbow, and lastly the seat press. The Slingshot helps move more weight because it helps to build more inertia, however it also deactivates the waist. Last, the current work was limited by the present literature but may serve as a reference within the area of powerlifting. Further research includes more details about the circumstances under which these were ran.
Address correspondence to Dr. Alain S. Comtois, comtois.alain-steve@uqam.ca.

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Stratasys Stock Tumbles On Unexpected Results

Usually when the prediction is not met something unexpected happened. In this situation it could be that the lower volume of revenue for the year suggests they did not make as many sales as expected. This could be caused by the dramatically increasing number of high level contest in the distance that Stratasys is occupying.
Nevertheless, the competition in the space, although high today, will continue to grow and become more bothersome for Stratasys in the future. To counteract this they’ll have to build up several revolutionary new services that attract new customers.
Thus it’s of terrific importance for a company to, first, provide predictions that are accurate and consistent with the true happenings behind the scenes at the firm. Secondly, it’s also critical for the firm to actually meet that prediction.

From the fourth quarter they were able to raise their gross margin somewhat, and it is almost always a good thing.
From the analysis there were several very good things which have improved over previous years’ performances. As an example, their GAAP operating loss was”just” US$11M as compared to their lack in US$14M to get 20 17. That is clearly a substantial improvement, however it’s still a loss.
You receive what you see previously. That’s referred to as an”modification” where in fact the generally accepted price of a stock is reset to some value that’s consistent with the best known information about the business, which, in this case, happens to be the true financial results from 2018.
The stock price of a company is usually strongly influenced with these forecasts. Investors, that transaction stocks of many companies usually, are paying close attention to these forecasts and calculating the probable value of their stock later on. This then allows them to peg the present price of this stock in a value that is sensible concerning the expected operation.

It seems that Stratasys overlooked their financial goals. Publicly traded companies need to supply some financial guidance to investors ahead of the outcome being released. It’s really a type of prediction which helps traders understand in which the organization is headed.
In fact, this economic report incorporates guidance for 2019, or in other words, which they expect to take place in 20-19.

Even as we’ve said earlier, that is by no way a devastating position for Stratasys. They still are among the biggest 3D printer businesses on the planet, and also the relatively miniscule loss is easily covered from their massive pile of cash in the bank. They could go on like this for a lot of years without even stripping down their stash.

Something dramatic happened to Stratasys stock this week [Source: Google Finance]
So, a combination of good and bad. That isn’t terribly different than most of the financial reports within the last couple of decades.

Stratasys released their 2018 financial effects and there is a little bit of a surprise.

Something dramatic happened to Stratasys stock this week [Source: Google Finance]

However, what are the results when the real results do not fit the prediction?
But, if you consider the graph above, you will see their stock price took this significant fall up on the discharge of this information. Why can that be?

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Moderate Load Resisted Sprints do Not Improve Subsequent Sprint Performance in Varsity Level Sprinters

Resisted sprint training (RST) is most widely used for performance enhancement in athletics and team sport to come up with equilibrium ability. Evidence shows that RST could succeed as a short term intervention to improve consecutive sprints. While these improvements are measured in team sport athletes, limited studies have considered the severe outcomes of RST trained in sprint-trained athletes. Thereforethe purpose of the current research was to determine if performing RST with varsity level sprinters using sled-equivalent resistive loads of ∼45 percent body mass results in a potentiation effect, leading to developments in succeeding maximal sprint functionality over 0-5 m and 0-20 m. Aggressive sprinters (n=20), were randomly assigned to perform a pre/post maximal 20 m sprint separated by either 3 obliterated (RST team ) or un-resisted (URS group) sprints. The RST or URS protocol was performed on four times separated by at least 7 days. No important differences were observed between the RST and URS groups comparing fluctuations in sprint occasions over 0-5 m (URS Δ = <0.01 s ± 0.03 therefore, RST Δ = <0.01 s ± 0.03 s) and 0-20 m (URS Δ = 0.013 s ± 0.04 therefore, RST Δ = <0.01 s ± 0.04 s). We conclude that resisted sprints using sled equal tons of 45% body mass are unsuccessful at inducing a potentiating effect on subsequent sprint performance in varsity level sprinters. In this people of athletes, greater loads may be essential to induce a potentiating effect.
This study was supported with a Mitacs Accelerate grant, in collaboration with the Speed River TFC. (IT08409)
Copyright © 20-19 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Corresponding Author: Jamie F. Burr, University of Guelph, HHNS, ANNU, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1, Tel: 1-519-824-4120 ext. 52591, Fax: 1-519-763-5902, Mail: burrj@uoguelph.ca

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Types of Lubricants (Liquid, Solid, Gas, and Semi-Solid)

What are lubricants?

Lubricants are substances which reduce friction and wear between two surfaces. It is applied at the interface of the two surfaces. Lubricants also help reduce the heat that is generated at the interface of the two surfaces that are in contact with each other and moving.

Some of the main functions of lubricants are:

  • Keep parts moving smoothly
  • Transfer heat to prevent overheating
  • Reduce friction and increase efficiency
  • Anti-stick coating on surfaces that tend to stick to one another
  • Carry away debris to prevent clogging
  • Transporting foreign particles
  • Transmit power from one equipment to another
  • Protect against wear and lengthen the life of the equipment
  • Prevent corrosion when a piece of equipment is being used in a corrosive or wet environment
  • Seal for gas to prevent it from escaping or losing pressure

Besides industrial applications, lubricants have some interesting domestic applications as well. For example, lubricants are used as oils in cooking and baking. They are also used in medical applications like ultrasound therapy.

Properties of lubricants

Lubricants that are considered good or high-quality will normally possess the following properties:

  • High boiling point
  • Low freezing point
  • High viscosity index
  • Thermal stability
  • Hydraulic stability
  • Demulsibility
  • Prevention of corrosion
  • High resistance to oxidation

Types of lubricants

Based on the molecular structure of the lubricant material as well as its shear strength, lubricants are classified as follows:

Solid Lubricants

A solid lubricant is a solid material which is applied or inserted between two moving surfaces or bearing surfaces. This material will shear a lot more easily than the bearing or moving surfaces. The three main requirements for a material to be a solid lubricant are the ability to support the applied load without major distortion, a low coefficient of friction, and a low rate of wear. Solid lubricants are generally used when the conditions are extreme. Solid lubricants are used in a powder form, as lubricating grease, in suspensions, in metallic films, or in bonded lubricants. Anti-friction linings use solid lubricants.

The durability of solid lubricants is increased by coating the binders along with lubricating pigments. These bonded coatings provide greater film thickness and increase the wear life of the lubricant and the surface on which the lubricant is applied. The popular applications of bonded coating of solid lubricants are cylindrical brushes, separator cage of rolling bearing, and electrical brushes.

Solid lubricants can be further classified into four sub-types, namely polymer, metal-solid, carbon and graphite, and ceramic and cermet.


Polymers are one of the largest groups of solid lubricants. They are suitable for use with light loads. They have a lower thermal conductivity which the amount of heat that they are able to dissipate. There are three main polymer solid lubricants, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Nylon, and synthetic polymers.

Polytetrafluoroethylene is a polymer which is derived from ethylene. All the hydrogen atoms in an ethylene molecule are replaced by fluorine atoms to give polytetrafluoroethylene. It is more popularly known as Teflon, a trade name given to PTFE by the famous company Du Pont. It is commonly used as a solid lubricant because of its low friction, its chemical stability, its low surface energy, and its greater chemical inertness. PTFE also happens to be non-toxic and hence is suitable for use in industries such as food and pharmaceuticals.

For all the plus points of polytetrafluoroethylene, there are some downsides as well. Firstly, it has a relatively high rate of wear. Secondly, it has high thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity which makes it less desirable for use in high-temperature environments. Lastly, it has low load capacity.

However, many of these disadvantages can be addressed through the use of synthetic polymers. Synthetic polymer lubricant can be prepared by mixing glass and carbon-based fillers with PTFE. Impregnating PTFE with metal structures such as bronze or lead is also an option. This modification also allows the synthetic PTFE to withstand higher loads and improve the wear rate.


These solid lubricants contain lamellar solids and achieve low friction through a process known as film transfer. Molybdenum disulfide is the most commonly used metal-solid lubricant. Some of the advantages of a metal-solid lubricant like molybdenum disulfide are a high load carrying capacity, good high-temperature performance, and low friction. It is also stable in vacuum up to 1000 degrees Celsius. Hence, molybdenum disulfide also finds use in space applications. Its disadvantages are sub-optimal performance in the presence of moisture and high film thickness. A thicker film does not last as long because it is more prone to wear and tear.

Carbon and graphite

Carbon graphite seals are used as solid lubricants. They have desirable properties such as high-temperature stability, high oxidation stability, and sustainable performance in high sliding speed applications. Graphite as a material has low friction and can withstand moderate loads. Graphite, however, is prone to corrosion and does not work very well in vacuum. The lubrication performance of graphite actually increases with an increase in temperature. However, beyond 500 degrees Celsius, the incidence of corrosion increases.

Ceramic and cermet

Ceramic and cermet coatings are used as lubricants in situations where a lower wear rate is more important than low friction. Ceramic/cermet coatings can be used at high-temperature ranges of around 1000 degrees Celsius. A 0.5mm thick coating of ceramic/cermet material offers a low-cost way of utilizing its wear resistance. The coating can be sprayed using a detonation gun, plasma spraying, or electrolytic deposition using an electrolyte that contains ceramic particles.

Semi-Solid Lubricants/Grease

Grease is considered to be one of the most versatile forms of lubricants. It can be used in a wide range of environments across various temperatures, load conditions, or speeds. Be it a dry or wet environment, dusty or clean environment, or even corrosive environment, grease finds use in all sorts of applications.

Grease is a type of pseudo-plastic fluid. One of the most significant properties of grease is consistency. Consistency is nothing but the relative hardness or softness of any material. Grease consists of lubricating oils which have low viscosity and are thickened by finely dispersed solids known as thickeners. Grease is made up of the following:

Base Oil

Petroleum and synthetic base oils are used in the manufacturing of grease. The properties of the base oil are very important, as they affect the properties of the grease that gets produced from the oil. A low viscosity and light base oil is used to produce grease that works at low temperatures. A heavier and high viscosity base oil is used to produce high-temperature grease.


Certain chemical additives are added to the grease in order to improve its properties. The choice of additives depends completely on the end use or application of the grease. Factors like performance parameters, environmental impact, sustainability parameters, compatibility, cost, and color all play a role in the choice of additives.


Thickeners are added to the base oil in order to thicken the material and produce grease. There are two types of thickeners, organic thickeners and inorganic thickeners. Inorganic thickeners are non-soap based while organic thickeners can be soap-based or non-soap based.

Some of the advantages of using grease as a lubricating material are its water resistance, its binding strength to the surface where applied, lower frequency of application, its ability to reduce noise and vibration, its ability to seal against contaminants, and its usability with vertical/inclined shafts.

Some of the disadvantages of using grease as a lubricant are its poor heat dissipation, its vulnerability to being contaminated by dust, and the inability to filter out contaminants from the grease.

Lubricants may also be used in a paste form in heavy load applications, in sliding applications, and with slow running bearings. The paste form of lubricant may also be used as assembly paste or as a high-temperature paste.

Liquid Lubricants

Liquid lubricants are used extensively in applications that are high in terms of speed and load size. Liquid lubricants are the most dominant type of lubricant in the market. Liquid lubricants are comprised of base oil and some additives. The various types of liquid lubricants are as follows:

Mineral Oil

Mineral-based lubricants are extracted from crude oil. Mineral oil lubricants are of four types. The first type is paraffinic oil. It has good resistance to oxidation. It exhibits good thermal stability, is less volatile, and has a high flash point.

The second type of mineral oil lubricant is naphthenic oil. This type of lubricant is good for low-temperature applications. It has a lower flash point than paraffinic oil lubricant. When naphthenic oil lubricant is burnt, soft deposits are formed which in turn lowers the abrasive wear.

The third type of mineral oil lubricant is multigrade oil. It is made by adding polymers in mineral oils, thus enhancing the viscosity index of the lubricant. These lubricants have different grade levels whereby a specific grade of lubricant oil can offer optimal performance in low temperatures or in high temperatures.

Lastly, synthetic oil is another type of mineral oil lubricant. This type of lubricant was created to withstand harsh operating conditions. Jet engines use synthetic lubricants. These lubricants are expensive but they can withstand high levels of heat and stress. Some commonly used synthetic oils are esters, silicon, polyglycols, perfluoropolyalkylether, and perfluoropolyethers.

Vegetable Oil

Oil-based lubricant made from rapeseed and castor is known as vegetable oil lubricant. Vegetable oil contains more natural boundary lubricant than what is observed in mineral oil. However, vegetable oil lubricant is less stable than mineral oil lubricant at high-temperature ranges.

Animal Oil

Fats extracted from fish and animals are the sources of animal oil. Animal oil is sometimes also known as fixed oil. It is added to mineral oil in order to improve the film forming ability of the mineral oil. Animal oil does not volatilize. The main drawback with animal oil is its availability.

Gas Lubricants

Gases like nitrogen and helium are used as lubricants in applications where film thickness between tribo-pair is ultra small. The advantages of using gas lubricants are large temperature range, no sealing required for lubrication, very low friction due to low viscosity, no vaporization, no solidification, and no decomposition.

The downsides of using gas lubricants are low load capacity, lower tolerance for any errors in load estimation, and the need for a specialist designer in creating smooth surfaces with low clearance.

Selection of the right lubricant

You may know the different types of lubricants as well as the pros and cons of each type. However, you ultimately have to be able to pick the right kind of lubricant for the job at hand. The major factors that one needs to look at when selecting lubricants are load level, speed, sealing requirements, and environmental parameters.

One also needs to look at the coefficient of friction, the operating temperature, the area of contact, and the thermal conductivity. Once you have studied these metrics and have a good idea of the environment in which the lubricant is to be used, you will be able to select the right kind of lubricant.

Generally speaking, for lower loads and speeds, solid lubricants are a good bet. Then as you move towards higher loads and higher speeds, grease becomes a better bet. Grease is then followed by high viscosity oils, low viscosity oils, and finally gas lubricants. For the highest speed applications, gas lubricants are used.

The post Types of Lubricants (Liquid, Solid, Gas, and Semi-Solid) appeared first on 3D Insider.

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Soccer-Specific Reactive Repeated-Sprint Ability in Elite Youth Soccer Players: Maturation Trends and Association with Various Physical Performance Tests

Repeated-sprint ability is an important physical prerequisite for competitive soccer and deviates for players in various stages of growth and development. Thus, this study investigated reactive repeated-sprint ability in elite youth soccer players in relation to maturation (age at peak height velocity) and its association with performance of other physical tests. Elite male youth players from an English Premier League academy (U12, n = 8; U13, n = 11; U14, n = 15; U15, n = 6; U16, n = 10; U18, n = 13) completed the Reactive Repeated-Sprint Test (RRST; 8 × 30-m sprints with 30-s active recovery), and other physical tests including the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2), Arrowhead Agility Test, Counter Movement Jump Test with Arms (CMJA), in addition to 10-m and 20-m straight-line sprints. RRST performance (total time across eight sprints) progressively improved from U12 to U16 (P 0.05; ES: <0.3). Correlation magnitudes between performance on the RRST and other tests were trivial to moderate for the Yo-Yo IR2 (r=-0.15-0.42), moderate to very large for the Arrowhead agility test (r=0.48-0.90), moderate to large for CMJA (r=-0.43-0.66) and trivial to large for 10- and 20-m sprints (r=0.05-0.61). The RRST was sensitive at tracking maturation trends in elite youth players, although performance improvements were not as marked from 15-16 years of age. RRST performance correlates with several physical qualities decisive for competitive soccer (agility, speed, power and aerobic endurance).
Corresponding author: Dr Paul S Bradley, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, UK, E-mail: paulbradley94@yahoo.co.uk
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

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3DEO Celebrates Milestones and New Opportunities

It’s not just how a pieces are made, but the way they work, which matters into the end user. To create those parts , the team supporting the technology needs to be solid too in quantity and quality.
With the total 3D printing industry comprising 11% women employees internationally, 3DEO is showcasing devotion to its team construction. Sand notes that the company believes”in diversity and equal chance .”

3D printing industry experienced and 3DEO advisor even as we talked about, Cathy Lewis pointed into a number of the unique facts of the operations of this company.
We caught up with 3DEO to get an update on the newest in metal 3D printing and the provider’s celebration of a workforce that is diverse.

A sticking point of alloy 3D printing has been cost. Serial production has a way to proceed concerning cost competitiveness while orders and pieces have demonstrated their value.

“Our female workforce was an integral part of our success to date. Recognizing the invaluable contributions of those in our team, we work to foster a culture of inclusion. This team diversity is essential to our core values and contributes to your competitive advantage,” Sand said.

3DEO is emphasizing production capabilities. Direct work with clients and close relationships have reached the company aware of the way they need to head to create metal additive manufacturing competitive.
“Most organizations installing the apparatus are talking of a two-year period to ramp upward. We might help them get there, decide on the parts, have them into production using series fabricating, plus they have time and energy to really assess the tech and choose the perfect tech for their own,” she said.

“In 2019, our focus is truly rolling a quality campaign concerning quality around additive manufacturing and what should happen,” 3DEO President and cofounder Matt Sand explained me.

“You are not really at the dining table if you aren’t near cost,” Sand continued. “In case you can be close on price, then you’re at the desk, and you’re competing against a number of the highest-quality manufacturing technologies on the planet. We routinely compete against CNC machining in lesser amounts and MIM at higher quantities. Competing on RFQs is really exciting for us.”

An important part of the ethos at 3DEO is tied into that messaging of team, as the company is today among those celebrating International Women’s Day.

Via 3DEO
In 2018they sent over 30,000 production pieces. That number is supposed to go up significantly this year, as the organization has already taken two massive orders, one for 24,000 bits and another for 28,000 pieces. And that’s two clients.

“Quality can be just a large barrier to further adoption of AM especially in production,” Sand continuing.

The business is currently sponsoring the Women in 3D Printing event of the month to get the LA chapter, also to be stored 6-9pm on March 21.
Additions including Co-O Marty McGough, are adding focus the provider informs. McGough, Sand noted, has”been involved with several of the largest success stories from the market,” since he functioned using caliber in Align Technologies and also for hearing aids with Siemens. Focusing with 3DEO today on metal, McGough reported of his appointment that it was the team that brought the company to be worked with by him because he moved from advisor to COO.

Its production capacity is doubling, to sustain the growing numbers of earnings. In January, 3DEO’d 8 printers working to move up to 20 production printers in 20-19. With each 3D printer averaging 1,000 parts per day,”our capacity of 2019 will be quite significant,” Sand added.

Since 2019 accumulates steam, Sand noted that lots of forecasts are this year and 2020 is going to soon be”the years of production in additive manufacturing — and we absolutely agree” Cost, volume, and quality are critical when it comes to sequential production.

The company model in 3DEO is interesting; since Sand explains it,”We ship parts, we do not sell machines; we’re an agency bureau however use our own technology.”
When there is a significant focus this season for the busy metal 3D printing firm, then it has”quality.”

“When it comes to volume serial production in additive manufacturing, we’re very happy about our process,” Sand said mildly.
“to keep this accelerated growth, 3DEO is devoted to building the very capable and diverse team from many backgrounds. 23 percent of 3DEO’s team is constituted of women, with jobs which range from manufacturing to marketing,” the organization notes within a statement honoring the current occasion.

The business works together with”all types of unique orders” as Sand noted work in the demanding health and aerospace industries, as well as military, defense, police, and more to come as they go together. And many these can be more”in MIM type amounts of 25-50,000″ pieces, he said, since they view metal 3D printing to be directly competitive with traditional manufacturing.
Fundamentally the importance lies in the products.

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Best Audiophile Headphones of 2019

Are you in the market for the best headphones that the world has to offer? Then in this guide, you’ll find the top audiophile headphones that deliver phenomenal and life-like performance. Keep in mind that these are some of the more expensive headphones on the market, but if you are looking for something that delivers industry-leading features you have to be willing to pay a bit more.

Earbuds? If you are looking for audiophile earbuds view this guide. This guide is only headphones.
Audio Technica ATH-AD700X
3-4 years Warranty
20 ounces
Wider frequency range and open-back design.
Check Amazon
Best Value
Sennheiser PXC 550
3-4 years Warranty
7.8 ounces
Long battery life and excellent design.
Check Amazon
Top Pick
Sennheiser HD 700
Comfortable to wear
14.4 ounces
Durable headband and Wide frequency range.
Check Amazon

We have created 3 different price categories to make things simpler for you. This will help you quickly navigate to the products that match your budget. You will notice that we have included options from a variety of brands so there’s plenty to choose from.

The top buying considerations are also covered in this buying guide, which helps you make the right purchase. Some of the buying factors we will include are audio quality, comfort, Bluetooth connectivity, and durability.


Audiophile headphones should not only be known for the audio quality, but also for how comfortable they are to wear. After all, if you are going to be using these for professional purposes then it makes sense to get a product that you can wear for long durations at a time.

The headband contributes a lot to the comfort level of headphones. A soft material that feels nice is ideal, but it should also be sturdy so that it does not break easily. A highly adjustable headband is desirable so that you’re able to customize the fit to match the size of your head.

The earcups are another big factor when it comes to comfort. You must pay attention to the size and make sure they are big enough to fit your entire ears inside. This will ensure that you won’t experience pain and pressure on your ears while wearing the headphones.

Another factor that contributes to the comfort is the weight of the headphones. A lower weight is ideal, but be careful about selecting very light headphones. That’s because when weight is reduced it is typically with lesser quality materials that can sacrifice the durability of the headphones.

Audio quality

We are confident in saying that all of the entries on this list provide excellent audio, especially in the pricier categories. When deciding audio quality pay attention to the frequency range, audio drivers, noise isolation, and the brand.

You can look for some of these headphones at large nearby shopping centers to see how they fit, but most models aren’t likely to be there. Many are sold exclusively online or in specialty stores. Research the return policy before you order and simply send back products that aren’t perfect.

Each brand emphasizes different sounds when they tune their headphones. For instance, Sennheiser headphones tend to have less impactful bass so that the authenticity and accuracy of the audio is improved. Pay attention to the reputation the company has earned for how their headphones sound. Also, check if the headphones are closed back or open back.


When you buy expensive audiophile headphones you want them to stand the test of time. Therefore, pay attention to the materials used and how well-designed the headphones are. Where possible, we will mention the durability of the products we have covered in this guide. However, you should also do background checks to find out more about how a particular product was manufactured.

Looking at the warranty length and what it covers is a great first step to identifying the faith the manufacturer has in their own product. A brand would not be willing to provide a lengthy warranty if they weren’t confident in the overall design of their product.


You should pay attention to the brand when you buy audiophile headphones as that will determine the overall style. Brands tend to stick to the same key features in terms of ergonomic style and type of audio offered. Also, the brand that you choose will play a big role in determining how good the customer support will be after you make the purchase. The type of warranty you receive will also be determined by the brand that you go for. Some have a great reputation for warranty coverage while others always try to get out of fixing broken products.

Bluetooth technology

There is an argument to be made for why Bluetooth headphones are simply better than wired ones. That’s because you have more freedom as you can move without the limitations of a wire. You can get a drink from the kitchen without taking off the headphones or sit at the far end of a room in order to enjoy a movie on the sofa.

Keep in mind that Bluetooth technology is not identical in all headphones. Each year upgrades are made to Bluetooth technology so pay attention to which version you are going to buy. Obviously getting the latest version is best as that ensure the quality of the wireless connection will be improved.


As the name suggests, audiophile headphones offer high-quality audio that use the latest technology. Some professionals rely on accurate sound quality for video and sound editing. They need reference grade headphones to make sure you hear everything as it’s meant to sound.

The prices of the headphones in this guide are relatively high, which means that you should only make a purchase here if you can actually appreciate and have a use for the technology that’s packed into these products.

For those who appreciate high-quality audio

When you listen to music with budget headphones do you find yourself feeling that there is something missing? Then it might be the case that the audio quality is simply not good enough for you and by making a selection from this list you’re able to get the level of audio that will match your expectations.

Many people listen to music all day long. If this sounds like you, it’s an investment to spend a couple of hundred dollars into the best possible headphones that last a few years.

The audiophile headphones on this list are so good that even those that have demanding expectations get blown away by how far audio technology has progressed. Simply put them on and fire up your favorite album, and you’ll be immersed in an industry leading headphone experience.

Buy as a present

Do you want to surprise someone by purchasing someone an awesome audio product? Audiophile headphones will put a smile on the face of any present receiver due to the sheer quality that’s offered. Plus, they will think about you every time they use them. The products on this list will represent an upgrade for the majority of people that already own headphones.

Top 10 Best Audiophile Headphones Comparison Table

Make and ModelWeight WirelessPrice
Audio Technica ATH-AD700X20 ouncesNoCheck Price
Noontec Hammo Go Active9.6 ouncesYesCheck Price
V-MODA Crossfade LP2 Vocal1.76 ouncesNoCheck Price
AKG Pro Audio K70228.8 ouncesNoCheck Price
Sennheiser PXC 5507.8 ouncesYesCheck Price
Bose QuietComfort 35 (Series II)8.3 ouncesYesCheck Price
Audio-Technica ATH-MSR7BK10.2 ouncesNoCheck Price
Beyerdynamic DT 99010.2 ouncesNoCheck Price
Sennheiser HD 70014.4 ouncesNoCheck Price
Sennheiser HD 6009.1 ouncesNoCheck Price

Best Audiophile Headphones By Budget:

Click below to get detailed information on each headphone by price.

Best Audiophile Headphones Under $200

Do you want the cheapest audiophile headphones that are on the market? Then you should consider the options in the under $200 category. You’ll be surprised by the value that is offered here as some of the headphones are capable of competing in terms of performance with much higher priced headphones.

However, unlike with the more expensive categories the choices here might not be suitable for professional use as the audio is not as good. Also, pay attention to the durability of the product to ensure that it matches your expectations.

1. Audio Technica ATH-AD700X Audiophile Headphones

Audio Technica ATH-AD700X Audiophile HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.8/5

The 53mm drivers in the AudioTechnica ATH-AD700X reproduce clear treble, bass, and mids. These headphones have been designed to be worn for long durations, which is why the designers have padded the earmuffs to be as comfortable as possible. The headband automatically adjusts to your head size for easy wearing and listening comfort.

Furthermore, the connectivity technology is wired – a straight cord at the left of the earpiece transmits fast frequency waves directly from your device to headphones. Unlike most headphones, the Audio Technica ATH-AD700X has a wider frequency range of 5 Hz to 30,000 Hz, thus letting you hear deeper bass levels.

In addition, the headphones are open-air letting oxygen pass through. This means that the soundstage will be fuller and less heat will build up. Also, the earpads are made from flexible fabric that is durable and soft to wear. The gold plated stereo jack comes in two sizes 3.5mm and 6.3mm, making them compatible with almost all devices.

To summarize, the Audio Technica ATH-AD700X Audiophile headphones are open back and therefore comfortable to wear for long periods. The lightweight aluminum design is durable and stylish to wear. Also, the frequency range is 5-30,000 Hz making it a lot easier to hear the lower levels of bass.


Tech Specs
Weight: 20 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: 3-4 Years
The Pros
Compatible with most devices
Open-back design
Wider frequency range
The Cons
Cable could be better designed
Break easily

2. Noontec Hammo Go Active Noise Cancelling Headphones

Noontec Hammo Go Active Noise Cancelling HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.7/5

Thanks to distinctive technology, the Noontec Hammo Go Active Noise Cancelling Headphones can output great bass, treble, and highs. In addition, the headphones are noise canceling, which means you can listen to beats without the audio around you being a nuisance.

Moreover, the Hammo Go is created for people who want to look stylish when listening to music. The premium materials give the headphones a modern shiny look and the red trims make the headphones look even more expensive. Also, the earpads are extremely comfortable to wear and can rotate to better fit the user. Plus, the design is fully foldable, which reduces the space it takes up by half making it great for traveling.

In addition, the battery life is ultra-long lasting for up to 60 hours of playback time, which is more than the average Bluetooth headphone. Also, the headphones are made to be worn for extremely long durations (7 – 8 hours), which makes them great for traveling on planes, trains, and buses.

In conclusion, the headphones are great to take on long journeys, because they are easily foldable and strain-free to wear. The newly developed drivers utilize the wide frequency response to the fullest, outputting great bass and treble. Also, the battery life is an amazing 60 hours, which is longer than most premium headphones.


Tech Specs
Weight: 9.6 ounces
Noise isolating: Yes
Wireless: Yes
Warranty: 2-4 Years
The Pros
Sleek design
Noise canceling
Great frequency response
The Cons
Batteries get worn out pretty quickly
Can be a little tight on the head for some users

3. V-MODA Crossfade LP2 Vocal Limited Edition Headphones

V-MODA Crossfade LP2 Vocal Limited Edition HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.5/5

The V-MODA Crossfade LP2 Vocal Limited Edition Headphones are highly durable and have a military-grade level of MIL-STCD-810. The ultra-reinforced cable can withstand up to 1 million bends, which is 100x more durable when compared to other premium headphones. In addition, the SteelFlex headband can last for up to 10 flat bends and up to 60 drops on to hard concrete at a drop of 1.5 meters.

Moreover, the passive noise isolation clears out any unnecessary sounds allowing you to enjoy the music to the fullest. The 50mm dual-diaphragm drivers produce vibrant bass, clear mids, and amazing highs, without any annoying overlap. Also, the earpads help with the noise isolation by sealing your ears to deliver music directly to the ear canal.

In addition, 4 years of research lead the team to decide on an ergonomic hexagon shaped pads, which trap in sound waves more effectively. Also, the headband minimizes the force on your head, thus wearing the headphones for long won’t be a pain. However, if you do manage to break the headphones, V-MODA provides you with a two year warranty to cover damages.

To conclude, the V-MODA Crossfade LP2 Vocal Limited Edition Headphones are great for people who want to disconnect from the world and enjoy their music to the fullest. The padded earmuffs are extremely comfortable and help isolate the noise around you to further enhance the listening experience. Also, V-MODA provides a two year warranty just in case they are accidentally damaged.


Tech Specs
Weight: 1.76 ounces
Noise isolating: Yes
Wireless: No
Warranty: 2 Years
The Pros
Noise canceling
Comfortable to wear
The Cons
Wire jack can bend after multiple uses
Can be a little tight on the head for some users, since it has a no gap design

4. AKG Pro Audio K702 Channel Audiophile Headphones

AKG Pro Audio K702 Channel Audiophile HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.4/5

AKG is one of the first electronic companies that build their headphones with a revolutionary flat wire design. The result of this design is outstanding clarity of all the notes. The bass and treble are enhanced even further because the headphones have a frequency range of 10 Hz to 39,800 Hz.

AKG also has improved the overall feel of the product, because they use premium cushioned leather. The headband is fully adjustable and sits on your head comfortably applying minimal pressure, which means you can wear them for long periods of time strain-free. Moreover, the earmuffs are made from soft memory foam and gently cover the whole ear for a maximum snug fit.

In addition, the cable cord is extremely durable and detachable, which means you can customize the headphones to better suit the occasion. Also, the earpads are replaceable so you will be able to swap them out for your own personalized ones.

To summarize, the AKG Pro Audio K702 Channel Audiophile Headphones deliver great sounding music in ultra-HD quality. The frequency range is outstanding and therefore produces awesome bass and treble. Also, the cable and earpads are fully removable and can be customized to better fit your preferences.


Tech Specs
Weight: 28.8 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: 2 Years
The Pros
Open Back design
Studio grade
Comfortable to wear
The Cons
Pricey option
Headband could be improved

Best Audiophile Headphones Under $350

Do you have a decent budget and want a good cost to performance ratio? Then you should select audiophile headphones from this category. You’ll be amazed by the quality of the audio here. These are studio grade options that can be used by professionals.

The headphones here are excellent because the combination of the comfort, audio quality, industry-leading technology, and durability is excellent. You will not feel as if something is missing when purchasing headphones from this category.

5. Sennheiser PXC 550 Wireless Headphones

Sennheiser PXC 550 Wireless HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.9/5

The Sennheiser PXC 550 Wireless Headphones have been tailored specifically for travelers. These headphones are made to be portable, long-lasting, and lightweight for convenient use. The noise cancelation is great blocking out all background noises enhancing your listening experience since now you can hear all the notes.

In addition, the battery life is longer than most headphones at 30 hours on a single charge. The connectivity technology is Bluetooth 4.2 and NFC pairing. Because of this combination, the headphones have an extended connection range. However, if you forget to charge the Sennheiser PXC 550then you can attach a cable cord to listen to music, which Sennheiser provides in the packaging.

Moreover, the design of the headphones is lightweight, which makes them great to take on journeys. Also, an ergonomically engineered padded headband rests on the head firmly and doesn’t put too much pressure, allowing you to wear them for hours without any discomfort. The Sennheiser PXC 550 is fully foldable too, which makes them great to pack as they will take up less space.

In summary, the Sennheiser PXC 550 wireless headphones are great to travel with because of the many pluses that come with. The extended battery life lasts up to 30 hours of playback and can even be stretched further depending on volume. In addition, the design is extremely comfortable to wear. Finally, the sealed design offers effective noise isolation.


Tech Specs
Weight: 7.8 ounces
Noise isolating: Yes
Wireless: Yes
Warranty: 3-4 years
The Pros
Excellent design
Comfortable to wear
Long battery life
The Cons
Sound quality could be better

6. Bose QuietComfort 35 (Series II) Wireless Headphones

Bose QuietComfort 35 (Series II) Wireless HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.7/5

The Bose QuietComfort 35 (Series II) Wireless Headphones comes with a built-in microphone, which has noise rejecting features to allow clear conversations in crowded areas. Also, you can adjust the level of noise cancelation to better suit your environment, therefore making these headphones safe for outdoor use.

Moreover, the Bose QuietComfort 35 has volume optimized EQ making your music sound better, whether you’re on a plane, train, or in a public area. The Bluetooth and NFC pairing allow quick and stable connections, while also reducing interruptions. However, the headphones come with a 47.2 inch audio cable just in case you forget to charge the headphones.

In addition, the battery life is great at 20 hours of wireless play and up to 40 hours when in wired mode. The reason for this is that the headphones use up less battery power when connected to a smart device while still providing great quality beats. Moreover, you can download the Bose Connect app for even more functions such as adjusting noise cancelation levels, Bluetooth connections, and future software updates to further enhance the headphones.

To conclude, the headphones are great for someone looking disconnect from the world and immerse themselves into the world of music. The noise cancelation is fully adjustable with the app and can even be turned off altogether. In addition, the battery life is a long 20 hours and gets doubled when switched into wired mode.


Tech Specs
Weight: 8.3 ounces
Noise isolating: Yes
Wireless: Yes
Warranty: 3-4 years
The Pros
Customizable app
Comfortable earpads
Long battery life
The Cons
Bluetooth connectivity is not reliable
Frequency range could be higher

7. Audio-Technica ATH-MSR7BK SonicPro Headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-MSR7BK SonicPro HeadphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.6/5

The Audio-Technica ATH-MSR7BK SonicPro Headphones were designed to reproduce HD audio for users to hear the music the way it was intended to. The over the ear headphones are built with exclusive 45mm True Motion drivers, which utilizes lightweight voice coils to the maximum. A specially designed diaphragm is used to improve the circuit board and this results in a wider frequency range.

Moreover, the multi-vent air damping technology extends the mid to low frequency response even further allowing you to hear almost every note in a beat. The metal housings are designed to mirror the shape of the ear, thus helping the drivers to deliver music directly to the ear canal.

In addition, the headband is designed to shape to your head to provide maximum comfort and the earpads use special memory foam padding to ensure a comfortable fit. Also, the Audio-Technica ATH-MSR7BK SonicPro Headphone has a built-in microphone, which you can use to take calls on the go without any interruptions.

In summary, these headphones are great for listening to beats in ultra-high definition because they use advanced 45mm True Motion drivers. In addition, the frequency range is wider than most headphones at 5-40,000 Hz. Finally, the earpads are fitted with memory foam, which comforts the ears for a long-lasting fit.


Tech Specs
Weight: 10.2 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: 3-4 Years
The Pros
Memory foam earpads
Built with air vents
Comfortable to wear
The Cons
Headphones are not noise canceling
Microphone doesn’t block out background noises well

8. Beyerdynamic DT 990 Premium 250 ohm HiFi headphones

Beyerdynamic DT 990 Premium 250 ohm HiFi headphonesView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.5/5

The Beyerdynamic DT 990 Premium is an open back headphone, which means air can vent freely through it. However, this does mean you will be able to hear background noises even at the higher levels, but because of this the music sounds like its being played from a speaker. Also, due to the higher frequency response (5 Hz – 35,000 Hz) the headphones can produce clearer bass, which is great for listening to trap, house, techno, and when watching TV.

Moreover, the velvety soft earpads provide a great comfortable listening experience. Also, the ear cushions let the ears breathe, which means no more sweaty ear syndrome after wearing these headphones for hours. In addition, the headband is fully adjustable providing a tight fit so that the headphones won’t fall off when moving.

Furthermore, the Beyerdynamic DT 990 Premium is super lightweight only weighing around 11 ounces. This makes them great to travel with as you won’t even feel them there. Also, if the headphones were to break, Beyerdynamic provides a two year manufactures warranty. It doesn’t cover accidental damages such as from dropping the headphones.

In conclusion, the headphones are excellent for listening to music for hours, because of the comfortable open back design. Moreover, the wide frequency range helps provide a lifelike music experience in HD audio.


Tech Specs
Weight: 10.2 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: 2 Years
The Pros
Velvety soft earpads
Made in Germany
Lightweight design
The Cons
Bass sometimes doesn’t sound clear
Drivers could be tuned better

Best Audiophile Headphones Under $500

Those with a big budget and strict requirements should consider buying from the under $500. Here you will find the best audiophile headphones that money can buy and they deliver audio that is clear, accurate, and immersive.

Furthermore, these headphones are very comfortable to wear. This makes them suitable to be used for work for long periods of time on a daily basis. Take the time to fully learn about all the features that these headphones offer as it is a long list.

9. Sennheiser HD 700 Headphone

Sennheiser HD 700 HeadphoneView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.9/5

These open circumaural dynamic headphones offer high bass and clear cut treble. The three meter symmetrical silver plated oxygen free copper cable has outstanding endurance and helps deliver HD stereo music straight to the ears. In addition, the frequency response is excellent ranging from as little as 8 Hz to a whopping 44,000 Hz.

Moreover, the Sennheiser HD 700 Headphones have been specially tuned to deliver high-pressure sounds and a flat frequency response. This is due to the nominal impedance of 150 ohms. Also, the highly optimized ventilated magnet system minimizes air turbulence and sound distortion, which means you’ll only be hearing the finished product of full HD audio.

Furthermore, the headphones use open back ear cups to facilitate transparent sound while outputting clear transparent sound. The design is sleek and looks professional due to the metallic visuals of the body. The headband is fully adjustable and doesn’t put a lot of pressure on the head, thus making them great for people looking for prolonged use.

To conclude, these headphones are great for listening to beats on a wide frequency spectrum. The bass and treble can be heard clearly thanks to the 150 ohms. Also, the three meter cable is made from premium materials, which means they are long lasting and durable for long term use. Finally, the open design allows your ears to breath, thus not sweating after wearing for long periods.


Tech Specs
Weight: 14.4 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: N/A
The Pros
Comfortable to wear for long periods
Durable headband
Wide frequency range
The Cons
Painful to use when listening to certain genres of music
Highs can sound way to sharp

10. Sennheiser HD 600 Open Back Professional Headphone

Sennheiser HD 600 Open Back Professional HeadphoneView on Amazon

Editor’s Rating: 4.8/5

Another great product by Sennheiser is the Sennheiser HD 600 Open Back Professional Headphone because of the many features that come with it. Costing around $100 less than the HD 700, these headphones almost output the same high-quality tunes due to the dynamic drivers used. However, this model has more total harmonic distortion, which can be irritating at times to hear.

Moreover, the high-quality open metal mesh grills help deliver clear transparent sounds directly to your ears. Because of the design, the open back headphones allow your ears to breath making them sweat free after wearing them for long durations. Plus, the headband is made from premium quality providing a tight stable fit on your head, which limits the chances of them falling off when moving.

In addition, the Kevlar reinforced copper cable is completely detachable letting you customize the headphones to better suit your situation. Also, the neodymium ferrous magnets ensure optimum sensitivity and an excellent dynamic response. Plus, the magnets help deliver a wider frequency response (12 Hz – 39,000 Hz).

To summarize, these headphones are great for listening to bass based tracks because of the wider frequency range. Although costing less than the newer HD 700 model, the Sennheiser HD 600 Open Back Professional Headphones produce just as good quality without much distortion. Also, because of the open back design, the headphones allow your ears to breathe, which means you can wear them for long durations without sweating.


Tech Specs
Weight: 9.1 ounces
Noise isolating: No
Wireless: No
Warranty: 3-4 Years
The Pros
Customizable wire
Open-back design
Great frequency response
The Cons
Can be burned if you play at load volume for long periods
Not as durable as other headphones

The post Best Audiophile Headphones of 2019 appeared first on 3D Insider.

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