Relationship between physical fitness at the end of pre-season and the in-season game performance in Japanese female professional baseball players

This study examined anthropometric and fitness profiles of Japanese female professional baseball players and investigated the relationship between players’ physical fitness and in-season game performance. Fifty-seven players who were registered in the Japan Women’s Baseball League (JWBL) participated. Height, weight, grip strength, back strength, knee-extension and -flexion strength, hamstring extensibility, vertical jump height, and horizontal jump distance were measured at pre-season (February and March) in 2013. Game performance during the 2013 season (March to November) was obtained from official JWBL statistics. Vertical jump height showed significant positive correlations with individual performance records [e.g., total bases (r = 0.551), slugging percentage (r = 0.459), and stolen bases (r = 0.442)]. Similar relationships were observed between horizontal jump distance and performance statistics in most cases. In contrast, grip, back, and lower-limb strength, and hamstring extensibility were not significantly correlated with game performance. Stepwise regression analysis selected vertical jump height as an independent variable, significantly correlating with several game performance measures (e.g., total bases: adjusted R2 = 0.257). Also, vertical jump height and body mass index were identified as independent variables significantly associated with stolen bases (adjusted R2 = 0.251). Maximal jump performance, rather than simple isometric muscle strength or flexibility, is a good performance test that can be used at the end of pre-season to predict in-season batting and stolen base performance. Our findings demonstrate the importance of constructing pre-season training programs to enhance lower-limb muscular power that is linked to successful in-season performance in female baseball players.
Corresponding Authors: Yuya Watanabe Ph.D. Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan. Telephone/Fax: +81-774-65-6720 E-mail: Toru Morihara Ph.D. M.D. Department of orthopaedics, Graduate school of medical science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kajii-cho, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan. Telephone: +81-75-251-5549; Fax: +81-75-251-5841 E-mail:
This study investigated the relationship between physical profiles measured in pre-season and the following in-season game performance (e.g., total bases, slugging percentage) in Japanese female professional baseball players. The measurement of physical parameters was conducted in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine.
Additionally, there is no ethical problem or conflict of interest with regard to this manuscript.
Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.

Optimized Mucosal MVA Prime/Soluble gp120 Boost Vaccination Regimen Induces Similar Antibody Responses as an Intramuscular Regimen [Vaccines and Antiviral Agents]

The benefits of mucosal vaccines over injected vaccines are difficult to ascertain since mucosally administered vaccines often induce serum antibody responses of lower magnitude than those induced by injected vaccines. This study aimed to determine if mucosal vaccination using a modified vaccinia Ankara expressing HIV-1 gp120 (MVAgp120) prime and HIV-1 gp120 protein boost could be optimized to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by an intramuscularly (IM) administered MVAgp120 prime/gp120 boost to allow comparison of an IM immunization regimen to a mucosal vaccination regimen for their ability to protect against a low dose rectal SHIV challenge. A 3-fold higher antigen dose was required for intranasal (IN) immunization with gp120 to induce serum anti-gp120 IgG responses not significantly different than those induced by IM immunization. Gp120 fused to the Adenovirus type 2 fiber binding domain (gp120-Ad2F), a mucosal targeting ligand, exhibited enhanced IN immunogenicity when compared to gp120. MVAgp120 was more immunogenic after IN delivery than gastric or rectal delivery. Using these optimized vaccines, an IN MVAgp120 prime, combined IM (gp120) and IN (gp120-Ad2F) boost regimen (IN/IM+IN) induced serum anti-gp120 antibody titers similar to those induced by the intramuscular prime/boost regimen (IM/IM) in rabbits and non-human primates. Despite the induction of similar systemic anti-HIV-1 antibody responses, neither the IM/IM nor the IN/IM+IN regimen protected against a repeated low-dose rectal SHIV challenge. These results demonstrate that immunization regimens utilizing the IN route are able to induce serum antigen-specific antibody responses similar to those induced by systemic immunization.


Mucosal vaccination is proposed as a method of immunization able to induce protection against mucosal pathogens that is superior to protection provided by parenteral immunization. However, mucosal vaccination often induces serum antigen-specific immune responses of lower magnitude than those induced by parenteral immunization, making the comparison of mucosal and parenteral immunization difficult. We identified vaccine parameters that allowed an immunization regimen consisting of an IN prime followed with boosters administered by both IN and IM routes to induce serum antibody responses similar to those induced by IM prime/boost vaccination. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of mucosal immunization for HIV-1 and other mucosally-transmitted pathogens.

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Use of loaded conditioning activities to potentiate middle- and long-distance performance: a narrative review and practical applications

Funding disclosure: No funding was received for this study.
Copyright © 20-19.
Corresponding author: Richard Blagrove Mailing address: Faculty of Public Health, Education and Life Sciences, School of Public Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, City South Campus, Westbourne Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, uk, B15 3TN Tel.: (+44)121 300 4396 Email:
The warmup is an integrated component of a mid – and long-time athlete’s pre-performance routine. Using a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which arouses a post-activation potentiation (PAP) a reaction to significantly enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into a middle – or – long-distance athlete’s warm up gives a novel solution to fortify performance. Relating within the neuromuscular system to adjustments that are intense, should improve middle- and operation via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability. Efforts to enhance mid – and – long tail associated outcomes have been found in several studies. Results suggest benefits to performance may exist in well-trained middle- and long-distance athletes by adding highintensity immunity training (1 5 repetition maximum) or adding load into the sport skill itself during the latter portion of warmups. Early stages of performance may actually benefit most, and it is very likely that recovery (510 minutes ) also has a significant part after having a LCA. Future research should consider the way priming task, designed to improve the V[Combining Dot ]O2 answer that is kinetic, and a LCA may interact to affect performance, and LCA’s might benefit several modes and durations of middle- and exercise.

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GKN Powder Metallurgy Opens North American HQ, AM Customer Center

[Image: GKN Powder Metallurgy]

Germany-based GKN Powder Metallurgy is expanding its North American 3D printing presence.

As 3D printing continues to expand worldwide and metal in particular continues to attract great interest, GKN is broadening its global network. This week, the company announced the opening of a 38,260-square-foot facility in Michigan.

North America is an attractive market for international 3D printing companies, and many — like fellow German company EOS — have been focused on opening and investing in local facilities, signaling both their interest and the expansion of metal technologies. This goes both ways of course, as US-based companies like Markforged establish their own operations in Europe; additive manufacturing is truly a global industry.

GKN’s new facility houses its new North American Powder Metallurgy Headquarters and its Additive Manufacturing Customer Center.

More than 80 employees are set up at the new facility, representing all three of the company’s businesses: Hoeganaes, GKN Sinter Metals, and GKN Additive.

The square footage breaks up into a majority (20,700 square feet) of collaborative work areas, just a bit smaller shop floor space (17,700 square feet), and the 3,200-square-foot AM Customer Center that houses two DMLS machines.

“We are excited to start a new journey in Auburn Hills with a space that is dedicated to our team, our community and the advanced technology we create for our customers. This building reinforces our commitment to the North American market and continued global growth,” said Reid Southby, President, GKN Sinter Metals Large Segment.

“GKN Powder Metallurgy is at an exhilarating point in its journey of growth and innovation. We now have the opportunity to provide our customers and strategic partners with local and exceptional support on all fronts of our business.”

Customer Centers with functional equipment are an excellent resource for companies. Especially because additive manufacturing is still both a new-to-many process and a major investment, getting hands-on knowledge with working systems as well as those who work with them every day is an invaluable experience. I appreciated a visit to Nano Dimension’s Customer Experience Center in their Israeli HQ, for example, and the setup included an invented customer to walk step-by-step through the entire workflow.

Now that the GKN family of companies has its Michigan facility, US-based customers have better access for both understanding and conducting business. The localization to the North American market provides regional customers more efficient lead times as well as access to local customer support.

The facility is also set up with room to grow. As operations in metal additive manufacturing expand, GKN Powder Metallurgy is poised to continue to partner with industry participants and serve customers in prototyping, medium series, and aftermarket metal 3D printing.

Via GKN Powder Metallurgy

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The Strange Tale of B3 Innovations Ends In Dipping Sauce

B3 Innovation’s Pico Hybrid hot end is no more [Source: B3 Innovations]

Many 3D printing startups have failed, but none in quite the way that B3 Innovations has just announced.

The company launched in 2013 and quickly fired up a Kickstarter for a then-unique all-metal 3D printing hot end, the Pico. The intention was to provide a powerful upgrade for the many kit-based desktop 3D printers of the time.

Their Kickstarter from 2014 was successful, as they reached their fundraising targets and delivered the hot end. It was a hit with those who used the device. One commenter, Leon Grossman, said:

“I’m just coming back here to give a follow up after several months of use. This hot end has given me many hours of flawless printing in PLA, ABS, Bronzefill and T-Glase.

Anybody who stumbles across this in their search for a hot end shouldn’t hesitate to go order one.”

The company then proceeded to work on their next version, the Pico Hybrid.

It never showed up.

Then this week we received an email from them with a rather strange story of what happened. They explain:

“It is beautiful, even tinier, more capable and unbelievably reliable. It has been through the (unintentionally) longest beta trial imaginable, a small private production run, and has been proven, even sought after, by notable fellow printers in our community. But sadly, this is where our story goes dormant. And the reason, as hard as it may be to admit, we have stumbled upon a different path.“

That’s not totally unique; many startups end up pivoting into something related, but different. But B3 Innovation’s pivot is a bit saucy.

During the development of the Pico Hybrid, the company was obviously doing a lot of test prints. One of the objects they were printing was a prototype dipping sauce holder, called the Saucemoto dip clip, designed to attach to almost any vehicle’s air vents. The design, from Milkmen Design, solves the universal issue of trying to manage misbehaving dipping sauce containers in your center console while driving. Cleaner, tidier and tastier!

They explain how it happened:

“It started with a mutual acquaintance begging us to 3D print a prototype Saucemoto, that was conceived years ago. We printed some and friends just could not stop stealing the printed prototypes from our cars (haha). The luring effect of this product grew and grew and eventually we launched a successful Kickstarter.”


saucemoto dip clip.jpg

saucemoto dip.jpg

[Images: Saucemoto]

B3 Innovations unexpectedly found the Saucemoto to be incredibly popular. They even found friends stealing them from their vehicles! The demand was such that they had to reconsider where they were allocating their time.

In the end they seem to have decided to suspend Pico Hybrid development and put all their resources towards the Saucemoto. Thus, no Pico Hybrid will be forthcoming unless someone picks it up from them.

This is not surprising, because everyone knows dipping sauce trumps 3D printers!

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Host-specific NS5 ubiquitination determines yellow fever virus tropism [Virus-Cell Interactions]

The recent yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil in 2017 and Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in 2015, serve to remind us of the importance of flaviviruses as emerging human pathogens. With the current global flavivirus threat, there is an urgent need for antivirals and vaccines to curb the spread of these viruses. However, the lack of suitable animal models limits the research questions that can be answered. A common trait of all flaviviruses studied thus far is their ability to antagonize interferon (IFN) signaling so as to enhance viral replication and dissemination. Previously, we reported that YFV NS5 requires the presence of type I IFN (IFNα/β) for its engagement with human Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 2 (hSTAT2). In this manuscript, we report that like the NS5 proteins of ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV), YFV NS5 protein is able to bind hSTAT2 but not murine STAT2 (mSTAT2). Contrary to what has been demonstrated with ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, replacing mSTAT2 with hSTAT2 cannot rescue the YFV NS5-STAT2 interaction, as YFV NS5 is also unable to interact with hSTAT2 in murine cells. We show that the IFNα/β-dependent ubiquitination of YFV NS5 that is required for STAT2 binding in human cells is absent in murine cells. In addition, we demonstrate that mSTAT2 restricts YFV replication in vivo. These data serve as further impetus for the development of an immunocompetent mouse model that can serve as a disease model for multiple flaviviruses.

IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses such as yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are important human pathogens. A common flavivirus trait is the antagonism of interferon (IFN) signaling to enhance viral replication and spread. We report that like ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, YFV NS5 binds human STAT2 (hSTAT2) but not mouse STAT2 (mSTAT2), a type I IFN (IFNα/β) pathway component. Additionally, we show that contrary to what has been demonstrated with ZIKV NS5 and DENV NS5, YFV NS5 is unable to interact with hSTAT2 in murine cells. We demonstrate that mSTAT2 restricts YFV replication in mice, and that this correlates with a lack of IFNα/β-induced YFV NS5 ubiquitination in murine cells. The lack of suitable animal models limits flavivirus pathogenesis, vaccine and drug research. These data serve as further impetus for the development of an immunocompetent mouse model that can serve as a disease model for multiple flaviviruses.

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3D Printing in Automotive: Has The Time Come?

Daimler now has a highly productive metal 3D printing system for replacement parts [Source: Daimler]

Daimler announced a fully automated metal 3D printing system, “NextGenAM”, and this points us to a very interesting future.

The well-known German automaker teamed with 3D printer manufacturer EOS and Premium AEROTEC to produce the system. While Fabbaloo readers have likely heard of EOS, you may not have heard of Premium AEROTEC. They are a company that produces structures for aerospace applications.

It may seem unusual for an aerospace company to team with an automotive company, but there’s gold for both at the end of this project.

Their goal was to develop a system to produce metal parts that was substantially less expensive than conventional approaches. This, they seem to have achieved with the new NextGenAM system project, which has now completed. It is said to reduce the manufacturing costs per part by some 50%.

It’s important to remember that the “3D printing” part of the manufacturing process is actually only one of many steps involved. Post-processing, quality testing, job layout, inventory tracking, thermal planning, 3D modeling, file storage and much more are involved. These, in a traditional process, are often performed by a healthy amount of expensive manual labor.

That’s definitely not the case with the NextGenAM system, which apparently is entirely automated. Daimler explains:

“The secret lies in an ingenious and scalable additive production chain, which is fully automated right through to the point where the printed parts are mechanically sawn off the build platform. This means that no manual work is now required at any stage of the process, from the data preparation and central powder supply through to the AM build process itself and including heat treatment, quality assurance and separation of the components from the build platform. The technical heart of the system is the EOS M 400-4 four-laser system for industrial 3D printing using metal materials. A driverless transport system and robots ensure the smooth movement of the parts through every stage of the production line.”

We’ve seen other 3D printer vendors begin working on this challenge, as some are developing robotic accessories to automate some of the many tasks involved in metal 3D printing operations. However, the emphasis is on “some”. Here Daimler and partners have developed a system that is entirely automated.

The implications of this are profound: here we have a kind of “black box” system that can be requested to produce many kinds of metal parts at the touch of a button — assuming the 3D models exist.

How could this be deployed to production? It seems that Daimler is most interested in using it as a unit for replacement parts, rather than mass producing new equipment parts. This is a wise decision, as the speed of production has not been improved sufficiently to rival mass production techniques.

Instead, we see a formalized low-volume production system that can be used for arbitrary metal parts on demand. I’m not sure this type of 3D printing system has been developed by anyone else, and its presence could allow an operator to potentially reduce their physical parts inventory.

The concept is called “Digital Inventory”, in which the replacement parts are held only as digital models, rather than keeping warehouses full of pre-made physical parts. In traditional manufacturing such inventories had to be made when the factory was tooled up for making them; after the production run ends, there is no way to re-tool the production line. Thus, companies had to store vast quantities of part variations in anticipation of future requests, often at great expense.

That expense could go away for companies like Daimler using this type of 3D printing system.

I have to think that as soon as this catches on with Daimler, other automotive operations will take note and be forced to implement similar technologies.

I think this could be the beginning of a rush towards advanced 3D printing technologies in the automotive industry, similar to what we’re seeing in the aerospace industry.

Via Daimler

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Art Imitates Life, Inspires Synthetic Organs

[Image: Brandon Martin / Rice University]

What do you get when a design studio collaborates with bioengineers?

One of the most common themes we see today as Industry 4.0 takes shape is the collaboration needed to make real, tangible advances. Whatever you want to call that collaboration — a partnership, teamwork, cross-disciplinary think tanks, co-creation — the need to work together is ever more in the spotlight.

One debate that I find interesting is a simple one: do we talk about STEM or STEAM? Science, technology, engineering — arts (?) — and mathematics make up the focus of many educational curricula today. As a theatre major working today in technology, I’m very much a proponent of STEAM over STEM: we need the arts. We need the thinking that comes from artistic endeavors.

A three-year collaborative relationship between design studio Nervous System and researchers at Rice University, the University of Washington, Duke University, and Rowan University highlights the very real ways in which art and technology go beautifully hand-in-hand.

Nervous System is a prolific studio behind some incredible designs we’ve seen over the years. They’ve also already been behind some important messaging for the industry at large. No wonder; their entire basis is in applying broader thinking. The studio’s description explains:

“Nervous System is a generative design studio that works at the intersection of science, art, and technology.”

I’ve been most familiar with Nervous Studio’s design work in fashion and jewelry — but now they’ve released detail of work in creating vascular networks for 3D printed organs.

They say:

“We founded Nervous System in 2007 with the goal of adapting algorithms and strategies from nature into new ways to design products; but we never imagined we’d have the opportunity to apply that back to designing living things.”

Nervous System co-founders Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg are now also co-authors on an intriguing interdisciplinary article created with the university teams. The piece, published earlier this week in Science magazine, is titled “Multivascular networks and functional intravascular topologies within biocompatible hydrogels.”

The work brought the Nervous System designers full circle, in a way. Their art has been inspired by nature, created using generative systems, and now that skill is being used to in turn make new living things.

Obviously there are a lot of complexities in creating living organs. The body is ridiculously complex, with organs requiring “intricate vascular networks” to keep operations running. These are of course all networked together to work in the entire functional body. Progress made in bioprinting is leading, slowly, to what may be a new reality in 3D printing personalized new organs — but it’s a long road yet ahead.

The project Nervous System worked on specifically focused on these intricate vascular systems. They explain:

“Our goal is to create software which enables scientists to design customized multi-vascular structures for 3D-printed organs. Nervous System collaborated with the Miller Lab to design and generate these complex multivascular networks and materialize them in soft hydrogels for the first time.”

Riche University’s Miller Lab is run by Jordan Miller, who reached out to Nervous System in February 2016. He had found some of their branching sculptures on Thingiverse and thought there might be the possibility to bring those types of structures and that level of experience into the lab.

Nervous System explains some of the project’s reach:

“Our role is just a small part of a large team led by Jordan Miller at Rice University. The Miller Lab is developing the bioengineering, 3D-printing technology, cell culturing, and analysis tools that make these designs possible to realize. Particularly, they developed a new 3D-printing workflow compatible with live cells called SLATE (stereolithography apparatus for tissue engineering). The SLATE printer can embed live cells into soft gels containing very small, intricate blood vessels down to 300 microns in diameter. Hydrogels printed in only minutes by SLATE can function as lung-like networks with entangled air / blood networks.”

More on the research:

In 3D printing, we often see more collaborations focusing on bringing in specific software suites and capabilities. Software is a particular need for the industry, and we’re seeing an increasing amount of partnerships and new product introductions focusing on this area.

Nervous System’s experience in this area, along with biomimetic design thinking, made the studio an excellent fit to the work these universities’ researchers were doing in the lab.

Sometimes collaborations that may at first glance — a design studio and bioengineering research — seem very disparate. But really, it’s these types of cross-disciplinary experiences coming together that will lead to some of the greatest advances we’ll see.

Via Nervous System

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BK polyomavirus activates the DNA damage response to prolong S phase [Virus-Cell Interactions]

BK Polyomavirus (PyV) is a major source of kidney failure in transplant recipients. The standard treatment for patients with lytic BKPyV infection is to reduce immunosuppressive therapy, which increases the risk of graft rejection. PyVs are DNA viruses that rely upon host replication proteins for viral genome replication. A hallmark of PyV infection is activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) to prevent severe host and viral DNA damage that impairs viral production by an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we sought to better understand why BKPyV activates the DDR through the ATR and ATM pathways and how this prevents DNA damage and leads to increased viral production. When ATR was inhibited in BKPyV infected primary kidney cells, severe DNA damage occurred due to premature Cdk1 activation, which resulted in mitosis of cells that were actively replicating host DNA in S phase. Conversely, ATM was required for efficient entry into S phase and to prevent normal mitotic entry after G2 phase. The synergistic activation of these DDR kinases promoted and maintained BKPyV-mediated S phase to enhance viral production. In contrast to BKPyV infection, DDR inhibition did not disrupt cell cycle control in uninfected cells. This suggests that DDR inhibitors may be used to specifically target BKPyV infected cells.


BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an emerging pathogen that reactivates in immunosuppressed organ transplant patients. We wanted to understand why BKPyV-induced activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) enhances viral titers and prevents host DNA damage. Here we show that the virus activates the DNA damage response in order to keep the infected cells in S phase to replicate the viral DNA. The source of DNA damage was due to actively replicating cells with uncondensed chromosomes entering directly into mitosis when the DDR was inhibited in BKPyV infected cells. This study clarifies the previously enigmatic role of the DDR during BKPyV infection by demonstrating that the virus activates the DDR to maintain the cells in S phase in order to promote viral replication and disruption of this cell cycle arrest can lead to catastrophic DNA damage for the host.

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Structo’s Aligner Partnership Aligns Orthodontic 3D Printing and Software

3D printed dental models made on Structo’s DentaForm [Image: Structo]

Structo and uLab Systems have announced a strategic partnership focused on 3D printing clear dental aligners.

Patient-specific applications are booming for 3D printing, as the technology is adaptable to a variety of uses that can meet individual needs. This is abundantly apparent in orthodontia, which is inherently patient-specific; no two sets of teeth are crooked in exactly the same way. Clear aligners have been a massive use case for 3D printing, and this new partnership is focusing on further streamlining the workflow to create them.

Structo is all about specific solutions for the dental industry; the company has told us before that application-specific 3D printers help “take the work out of workflow.”

For its part, uLab Systems, based in Redwood City, California, offers in-office orthodontic treatment planning software. As we know, the most powerful collaborations that bring out the best in 3D printing focus on bringing hardware and software capabilities together. For these two companies, both dedicated to orthodontic solutions, the collaboration seems to make great sense — and so it has a few objectives.

In uLab’s next software update, a new integration will be available. The uDesign aligner treatment planning software will include detail for Structo’s DentaForm 3D printer. These will then operate in the uPrint 3D printer ecosystem through which clinicians can 3D print aligner models in their offices, ready to prep for vacuum forming and trimming.

“DentaForm’s high throughput capabilities of printing up to 10 arches in 30 minutes is exactly what existing uLab customers need to help them with their in-office aligner manufacturing,” said Joe Breeland, uLab’s Chief Commercial Officer.

But it’s not just the DentaForm, or even just the desktop Velox system, coming into play.

The collaboration will encompass a new aligner-specific capability. Structo Elements is a modular, automated 3D printing system — and the next module is designed for aligners.

The Elements system is designed to 3D print up to 500 models daily and incorporates post-processing capabilities in its main module, allowing for a one-stop print-wash-cure sort of setup. It’s rather reminiscent of 3D Systems’ scalable Figure 4 setup.

“Our vision for Elements is to build application-specific modules that can streamline every single dental appliance manufacturing process. The first of such modules we are currently working on is a solution for the orthodontic clear aligner application to automate the vacuum forming and trimming processes of the aligners right after the models are printed and post-processed in the production module,” said Dhruv Sahgal, Structo’s Chief Commercial Officer.

“To be able to tap on uLab’s expertise in this area ensures that we can deliver on that promise of fully automating the entire aligner manufacturing workflow for our customers.”.

In introducing the collaboration, Structo and uLab are also offering a bundle deal. The announcement was made today at the annual American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) session in LA, and so the companies are offering an AAO-exclusive bundle deal in which purchase of a Structo DentaForm 3D printer comes with a 30-day free access to the uLab aligner software.

Via Structo

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